May 30, 2023

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Summary of COVID-19 mutants and 80 Antigens

Summary of COVID-19 mutants and 80 Antigens


Summary of COVID-19 mutants and 80 Antigens. 


According to data from the National Center for Biological Information (CNCB), it is shown that there have been 3,225 mutations in the S protein of the new coronavirus, including 1,930 mutations that cause amino acid changes, and 253 amino acid mutations in the protein receptor binding domain (RBD) . 

Recently, three new coronavirus mutant strains have attracted widespread attention around the world, namely the British B.1.1.7 mutant, the South African B.1.351 mutant and the Brazilian P.1 mutant.


Mutations in RBD may increase the affinity of binding to the receptor, weaken the effect of neutralizing antibodies, or cause viral immune escape. According to “Cell”, mutations at Q493, Q498 and N501 will increase the affinity of the virus with the ACE2 receptor on the surface of human cells and enhance the infectivity of the new coronavirus. 


In mouse models, experiments have confirmed that N501Y can enhance the binding affinity of the virus to human and mouse ACE. The Furin protease cleavage site has a huge impact on the host cell binding ability, and the P681H mutation is close to the Furin cleavage site, which may be a factor that increases the affinity of S protein and ACE2 by a thousand times. 69-70del may help the virus escape the host immune response.




British B.1.1.7 mutant

The study found that this mutant strain has 23 special mutations, including 14 non-synonymous mutations (amino acid changes), 6 synonymous mutations (non-amino acid changes) and 3 deletions.

This is the first time it has been found in a strain There are so many variations. Among them, 8 mutations all occur in Spike protein.

The following 3 mutation sites are particularly concerned by researchers and need to be monitored.

– N501Y, can enhance the combination of new coronavirus and human or mouse ACE2

– 69-70del, can cause immune escape

– P681H, near the Furin restriction site


Yiqiao Shenzhou has successfully developed a variety of products related to this mutation site, which can be used in the research of neutralizing antibodies and vaccines for the new coronavirus:


Study on important mutation sites of British mutant B.1.1.7
Item No. antigen Mutation site
40592-V08H82 RBD N501Y
40591-V08H7 S1 HV69-70 deletion, N501Y, D614G
40591-V08H12 S1 H69del, V70del, Y144del, N501Y, A570D, D614G, P681H
40588-V07E7 (scheduled) N D3L, R203K, G204R, S235F
40588-V07E8 (scheduled) N D3L, S235F
40589-V08B6 (under development) S-ECD H69del, V70del, Y144del, N501Y, A570D, D614G, P681H, T716I, S982A, D1118H




South Africa B.1.351 mutant


According to the research data of relevant units in South Africa, it was found that the mutant strain was mainly Spike protein with 8 mutations, including 3 important residues of RBD: K471N, E484K and N501Y. Among them, E484K and N501Y belong to receptor binding motifs, which are the main sites for binding to human ACE2 receptor.


Summary of COVID-19 mutants and 80 Antigens

South Africa mutant site (Source: medRxiv)


The study of mutants in South Africa found the most worrying thing. On January 19th, a US research team published a preprinted article in bioRxiv and found that the protective ability of the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine against South African mutant strains may be reduced.

Researchers isolated neutralizing antibodies from vaccinated volunteers, of which 22 are The neutralizing activity of the antibody against a mutation site in the South African mutant decreased more than 5 times.

This reminds us that we need to strengthen the continuous monitoring of new coronavirus mutants.


Yiqiao Shenzhou also developed South African mutant related products for scientific research:


Study on important mutation sites of South African mutant B.1.351
Item No. antigen Mutation site
40592-V08H82 RBD N501Y
40592-V08H84 RBD E484K
40592-V08H59 RBD K417N
40591-V08H10 RBD K417N, E484K, N501Y, D614G



Brazil P.1 mutant


According to a report submitted by Faria et al. at Virological on the 13th, it was found that there were multiple mutations at K417T, E484K, and N501Y.


Summary of COVID-19 mutants and 80 Antigens

Phylogenetic tree of Brazil mutant strains and mutation sites (Source: Virological)


According to the published sequence information, Yiqiao Shenzhou recombinantly expresses the protein at the relevant mutation site in vitro, which can be used for research related to the new coronavirus:


Study on important mutation sites of Brazilian mutant P.1
Item No. antigen Mutation site
40592-V08H82 RBD N501Y
40592-V08H84 RBD E484K




Mink mutant


According to the SSI research report, 5 mutant strains were isolated from Danish mink, and Y453F has important research significance. 

The amino acid at position 453 of the Spike protein of the Y453F mutant new coronavirus is mutated from tyrosine (Y) to phenylalanine (F), which may be to better adapt to the mink host. In addition to the Y453F mutation, it also includes: 69-70del, 692V, S1147L, M1229I, etc.


Yiqiao Shenzhou has developed two mink-related mutant recombinant proteins:


Study on important mutation sites of mink mutants
Item No. antigen Mutation site
40592-V08H80 RBD Y453F
40591-V08H8 S1 ΔH69/ΔV70, Y453F, D614G

At present, Yiqiao Shenzhou has developed more than 80 recombinant Spike and N antigen mutant proteins, covering a variety of mutation sites including the above-mentioned mutation sites. 

The specific sites are as follows:

COVID-19 Spike Mutant Related Products List

SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD Mutant


P337S His tag F338L His-Tag V341IHis-Tag
F342LHis-Tag A344SHis-Tag A348SHis-Tag
N354DHis-Tag A352SHis-Tag S359N His tag
V367FmFc-Tag V367FHis-Tag N370SHis-Tag
A372SHis-Tag A372THis-Tag F377LHis-Tag
K378N His tag K378R His tag P384L His tag
T393PHis-Tag V395IHis-Tag T385AHis-Tag
D405V, Q414AHis-Tag E406Q His-Tag R408IHis-Tag
Q414EHis-Tag Q409EHis-Tag Q414R His-Tag
W436RHis-Tag K417NHis-Tag A435SHis-Tag
K444R His tag N439K His tag N440KHis-Tag
V445FHis-Tag G446S His tag G446VHis-Tag
L452R His tag Y453FHis-Tag L455FHis-Tag
F456L His tag F456EHis-Tag K458R His tag
K458QHis-Tag E471Q His tag I472VHis-Tag
G476SHis-Tag S477R His tag S477I His tag
S477NHis-Tag T478I His tag P479SHis-Tag
N481DHis-Tag G482S His tag V483AHis-Tag
V483IHis-Tag E484KHis-Tag E484QHis-Tag
N478RHis-Tag G485SHis-Tag F486S His tag
F490SHis-Tag S494P His tag F490LHis-Tag
P499R His tag N501YHis-Tag V503FHis-Tag
A520S His tag Y505CHis-Tag Y508HHis-Tag
A520VHis-Tag P521RHis-Tag P521SHis-Tag
A522VHis-Tag A522S His tag
SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1 Mutant
N234Q His tag D614GHis-Tag D614G Fc Tag
HV69-70 deletion, Y453F, D614GHis-Tag HV69-70 deletion, N501Y, D614GHis-Tag
K417N, E484K, N501Y, D614GHis-Tag L18F, D614GHis-Tag
T20N, D614GHis-Tag A222V, D614GHis-Tag

HV69-70 deletion, Y144 deletion, N501Y, A570D, D614G, P681H



SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1+S2 ECD Mutant

R683A, R685A, F817P, A892P, A899P, A942P, K986P, V987P




Summary of COVID-19 mutants and 80 Antigens. 

(source:internet, reference only)

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