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An overview of the history of the discovery of mesenchymal stem cells
An overview of the history of the discovery of mesenchymal stem cells. Where there are blood vessels, there are mesenchymal stem cells.
Mesenchymal stem cells, also known as pluripotent stromal cells, or MSCs for short, are a type of pluripotent stem cells belonging to the mesoderm. They mainly exist in connective tissue and interstitium of organs, including: bone marrow, placenta, fat, mucous membranes, bones, and muscles. , Lung, liver, pancreas and other tissues as well as amniotic fluid, amniotic membrane, umbilical cord, etc. Under suitable conditions, it can differentiate into a variety of tissue cells such as fat, bone and cartilage.
Let’s take a few pictures to see some of the magical characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells:
①The mesenchymal stem cells cultured in vitro rapidly increase in value and scramble to seize the territory. This “directed migration” ability is essential for damage repair:
②Where there are blood vessels, there are mesenchymal stem cells:
(The gray tubes in the picture are capillaries, and the red ones are mesenchymal stem cells)
③As shown in the figure below, live cells are stained red, and dead cardiomyocytes are stained cyan. Mesenchymal stem cells continue to migrate, and the mesenchymal stem cells at the position indicated by the arrow gradually fuse with dead cells to become binucleated, and the dead cardiomyocytes begin to die at 400 minutes Miraculously resurrected:
④ Mesenchymal stem cells can crawl around extracellular matrix such as collagen fibers:
In 1976, Freidenstein discovered bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for the first time. Later studies have found that mesenchymal stem cells have the potential for multi-directional differentiation, hematopoietic support and promotion of stem cell implantation, immune regulation and self-replication. Mesenchymal stem cells are considered to be the closest stem cell products to clinical applications.
Mesenchymal stem cells are another research hotspot after embryonic stem cells and hematopoietic stem cells. They are a kind of “practical stem cells” that can treat a variety of system diseases:
American Horwitz et al. used mesenchymal stem cells to treat pediatric osteogenesis imperfecta and type Ⅰ collagen deficiency
U.S. O·N·Koc and others use mesenchymal stem cells to treat mucopolysaccharidosis
Italy Mazzini et al. used mesenchymal stem cells to treat muscular dystrophic lateral sclerosis
French Fouillard et al. used mesenchymal stem cells to treat aplastic anemia
The United States uses mesenchymal stem cells to treat femoral head necrosis
South Korea uses mesenchymal stem cells to treat stroke
Russian M·F·Rasulov and others use mesenchymal stem cells to treat skin burns
The People’s Liberation Army 463 Hospital used mesenchymal stem cells to treat 229 patients with cerebral palsy, and the patients’ ability of daily living was improved with obvious results;
18 patients with aplastic anemia received mesenchymal stem cell therapy from Guangzhou Twelfth People’s Hospital, with a total effective rate of 72.2%
Nerve regeneration collagen scaffold combined with mesenchymal stem cells to treat spinal cord injury enters clinical research
The Third Hospital of Beijing Medical University uses placental mesenchymal stem cells to treat premature aging
The basic characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells include:
1) Strong proliferation ability and multi-directional differentiation potential: Differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes, muscle cells, nerve cells, liver cells, endothelial cells, stromal cells and other cells in a suitable in vivo or in vitro environment Ability.
2) Immune regulation function: Interfere with the function of dendritic cells and inhibit the proliferation of T cells and their immune response through the interaction between cells and the production of cytokines, thereby exerting the function of immune reconstruction.
3) Diversified sources, easy to obtain materials, easy to separate, culture, expand and purify, and still have the characteristics of stem cells after multiple passages and expansions.
The above is the general view on mesenchymal stem cells. As research further discovers that the value of mesenchymal stem cells in medical treatment is far higher than embryonic stem cells, multipotent induced pluripotent stem cells and other “stem cell stars”, it is necessary to renew them. understanding:
1. “Soil cells” supported by the organization:
Mesenchymal stem cells are a kind of trophoblast cells that may exist in all tissues and support the survival and growth of a variety of cells, including: hematopoietic cells, embryonic stem cells, tumor cells, nerve cells, liver cells, endothelial cells, etc.;
2. “Micro-pharmaceutical factory” for organization repair
Mesenchymal stem cells undergo inflammatory damage in the body, and when they release inflammatory signals, they continuously secrete relevant anti-inflammatory molecules and anti-apoptotic molecules, forming a microenvironment that promotes tissue repair and regeneration in the body;
3. Signal switch function:
Mesenchymal stem cells may have their own on/off regulation mechanism, and the key to this regulation mechanism may be whether there are inflammatory signals in the body;
4. Antibacterial effect:
Mesenchymal stem cells can secrete an antibacterial peptide called hCAP-18/LL37 with antibacterial effect;
It can repair vascular fibrosis, liver fibrosis, pulmonary fibrosis, etc.;
6. Anti-rejection effect:
Mesenchymal stem cells can inhibit GVHD (graft versus host response), can promote hematopoietic stem cell implantation, and can also reduce immune rejection after cell or organ transplantation;
7. Activate endogenous stem cells
Allogeneic transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells mainly regulates the microenvironment through the secretion of cytokines, and activates endogenous stem cells to perform tissue repair;
8. “Transient” mission:
Allogeneic transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells can directly participate in tissue differentiation and repair when necessary, and will be gradually replaced by endogenous tissue cells after completing the mission, and will not remain in the body for a long time;
9. Super starting materials:
Mesenchymal stem cells are easy to expand in vitro, have multipotency, and are expected to become ideal starting materials for tissue engineering, cell reprogramming, and cell transdifferentiation;
10. Accompanying the whole process of life:
With mesenchymal stem cells, tissues can occur: single-celled organisms have only colonies, gastrulation stage organisms have endoderm and ectoderm, and there is still no tissue differentiation, and each cell can survive independently; when life evolves or develops Tissues in the true sense of the third germ layer are born, and mesenchymal stem cells originate from the mesoderm;
11. Scaffolding of the body:
Mesenchymal stem cells are the builders and function maintainers of tissues: Mesenchymal stem cells are responsible for building scaffolds during tissue morphogenesis, and differentiate into connective tissues such as bones, cartilage, fat, and fibers, forming the framework of organ development; moreover, mesenchymal stem cells Plasma stem cells can secrete dozens of factors to provide nutrients for various differentiated cells;
12. Build cell microenvironment:
Mesenchymal stem cells are the builders and maintainers of all kinds of cell niche: all kinds of cells in the body can function normally only in the unique niche. Mesenchymal stem cells are responsible for building various niche and secreting all kinds of niche. Factors maintain their functions, such as: muscle cell niche, nerve cell niche, hematopoietic stem cell niche, epithelial cell package niche, tumor cell niche, etc.; on the other hand, mesenchymal stem cells also isolate different niche through immunomodulation to avoid different properties The conflict of niche;
13. Organization function maintainer:
Mesenchymal stem cells are the basis for maintaining tissue function. Any disease is directly related to mesenchymal stem cells: various physical, chemical, and biological factors directly and indirectly act on the scaffold and cell niche of the tissue, causing injury and infection , Allergies, necrosis, decreased immunity, endocrine disorders, neurological disorders, aging, cancer and so on.
14. All organizations:
Mesenchymal stem cells are accompanied by blood vessels and exist in all tissues, tissue fluids and secretions of the body: except for bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, placental stem cells, adipose stem cells, endometrial stem cells, peripheral blood stem cells, hair follicle stem cells, dental pulp stem cells, Mucosal stem cells, amniotic membrane stem cells, milk stem cells, urine stem cells, etc. all contain or themselves are mesenchymal stem cells;
(sourceinternet, reference only)