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Detailed information about China COVID-19 vaccines!
Detailed information about China COVID-19 vaccines! Should I be vaccinated?What should I pay attention to during vaccination?
Eeveryone has paid attention to Vaccines have become a hot topic recently. Everyone has a lot of concerns about vaccines. There are many questions that I want to understand clearly.
Should I be vaccinated? Where to go for vaccination? What should I pay attention to during vaccination? This article tell us a lot of knowledge. It’s really very detailed.
The epidemic caused by the new coronavirus swept the world in just a few months, infecting nearly 50 million people and claiming more than one million lives. To avoid a repeat of the tragedy, all countries have adopted stringent epidemic prevention and control measures. The epidemic has severely affected people’s normal lives. The whole world is looking forward to defeating the virus at an early date and has high hopes for vaccine research and development. And understanding the scientific common sense behind the vaccine helps to correctly understand the COVID-19 vaccine, grasp the advantages and disadvantages of various vaccines, and formulate a scientific anti-epidemic policy.
The professor first introduced the global epidemic situation, the characteristics of the new coronavirus, major epidemics in human history, and the major contribution of vaccines to the prevention and control of infectious diseases, and pointed out the urgent need for the development of vaccines. Then, from many aspects, we explained the development progress of the COVID-19 vaccine in detail and responded to several hot issues that the public is most concerned about.
International New Coronavirus Vaccine Research
The basic principles of the COVID-19 vaccine
Virus vaccine is a virus or virus component that has been processed and modified. Because it has lost the infectivity or pathogenicity of wild viruses, after the vaccine is injected into the human body, it will not only cause no disease, but it can also activate the immune system to fight the virus. The human immune system has memory capabilities and can rely on long-lived immune memory cells to produce long-term resistance. The immune system that has been “exercised” can react quickly when it defends against the enemy again and quickly strengthen its resistance against viruses.
The core task of the coronavirus vaccine is to provide an effective receptor binding area of the antigen and stimulate the body to produce protective neutralizing antibodies. There are many ways to provide this epitope, and most vaccine development routes are designed around this goal.
The main route of COVID-19 vaccine development
According to the method of providing viral antigens, vaccines are usually divided into several categories: attenuated live vaccines, inactivated vaccines, subunit vaccines, viral vector vaccines, and nucleic acid vaccines.
Various types of vaccine options internationally
The mechanisms and preparation processes of various vaccine research and development directions are different, and the advantages and disadvantages are also obvious. There is no perfect and universal COVID-19 vaccine research and development direction. In addition to the greater safety risks of live attenuated vaccines, many other routes can be tried. It is worth noting that before the epidemic, there was no vaccine against the coronavirus on the market in the world, which shows that the development of a new coronavirus vaccine is facing considerable difficulty.
Current status of COVID-19 vaccine research and development
The global COVID-19 vaccine research and development is in full swing. According to statistics from the World Health Organization, as of January 28, 2021, there are more than 200 vaccines under development worldwide, covering almost all research and development routes. Among them, 69 vaccines are already in clinical trials, and 14 have entered phase III clinical trials. China and the United States are the two leading countries in vaccine research.
The safety and effectiveness of the COVID-19 vaccine
A good vaccine must be both safe and effective. The advent of drugs or vaccines should be shut down and verified at various levels, and no hidden dangers should be left in any link. If the preset goals or requirements are not reached, they should be stopped. There have been many lessons in history that have caused huge public health problems due to the rush to launch products. For example, in 1961, a drug “thalidomide” that was used to relieve pregnancy reactions caused thousands of teratogens. The COVID-19 vaccine has a huge audience. Although its approval and promotion are urgent, it must not lower the standard in terms of effectiveness and safety.
China’s COVID-19 vaccine research
Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic, the Chinese government has laid out five technical routes for inactivated vaccines, recombinant protein vaccines, adenovirus vector vaccines, attenuated influenza virus vector vaccines and nucleic acid vaccines, and conducted research and development work in a standardized and orderly manner.
The 5 vaccines that have entered Phase III clinical trials are:
- Adenovirus vector vaccine developed by Academician Chen Wei’s team
- Two new coronavirus inactivated vaccines developed by Sinopharm Group
- A new coronavirus inactivated vaccine developed by Kexing Zhongwei
- A recombinant protein vaccine developed by Anhui Zhifeilongkema
- Kexing biological inactivated vaccine has significant effect
The authoritative medical journal “The Lancet” published a peer-reviewed paper on Chinese vaccines, claiming that CoronaVac, a COVID-19 vaccine developed by China Science and Technology, can quickly induce an immune response and is suitable for use during a pandemic.
China speeds up COVID-19 vaccination
On January 27, Zeng Yixin, deputy director of the National Health Commission, said in a press conference about vaccination work: China has completed 22.767 million doses of COVID-19 vaccination.
At the same time, China is speeding up vaccination work ahead of the massive flow of people next month for the Lunar New Year. Since mid-December 2020, the most populous country in the world has expanded its vaccination program to include more people at higher risk of infection. Zeng Yixin, deputy director of the National Health Commission, said in a press conference about the work on vaccines: “Generally speaking, the work is progressing smoothly and orderly.” China’s goal is to vaccinate 50 million people before the Lunar New Year in February. . The National Vaccine Plan now lists medical, transportation and catering service industry personnel, overseas workers and students as key groups.
Public attention to hot response
List of 8 key groups:
This emergency vaccination mainly involves personnel in key positions with a higher risk of contracting the nCOVID-19. Involved: personnel involved in imported cold chain logistics, personnel in isolated places, closed-loop management practitioners of immigration personnel, customs border inspection personnel, cross-border drivers and connection drivers of mainland cadastres, medical and health personnel, grassroots epidemic prevention personnel, public transportation personnel, Persons who go abroad for work and study for public or private purposes.
Who are not suitable for the COVID-19 vaccine?
It is not recommended to vaccinate patients with fever, patients with chronic illnesses, patients with acute illnesses, and pregnant women.
After the antibody is produced, how long is the protection period?
The protection period of the vaccine is being closely monitored. The first person who received the vaccine has been observed for more than 8 months, and the results show that it is still effective. Phase I and Phase II clinical subjects are also continuing to observe. According to the data that has been obtained, there is no problem for half a year. Whether it can be protected for 8 months, the results have not yet come out.
How long does it take to produce antibodies to form protective effects?
Due to individual differences, each person’s sensitivity to the vaccine is not the same, so the time to form protection after the vaccine is also different. From the current stage analysis of the Sinopharm China Bio-New Coronavirus Inactivated Vaccine Clinical Trial, antibodies can be produced 10 days after the first injection. However, the difference in antibody production between different people is very large, so we need to take the second injection. . After two injections, 14 days later, high-titer antibodies can be produced to form effective protection, and the positive conversion rate of neutralizing antibodies in the whole population reaches 99%.
What are the adverse reactions?
The main adverse reactions monitored were local reactions, mainly pain at the site of inoculation, and systemic reactions mainly including headache, myalgia, and fever.
Challenges and prospects of the COVID-19 vaccine
Although the vaccines in China and the vaccines developed by Pfizer are now in clinical stage 3, the vaccines in our country can be stored at room temperature 2℃~8℃ for a period of time. If you want to store for a long time, you only need to keep it at minus 20℃. ~ Frozen at minus 18°C, but Pfizer’s vaccines are different. If their vaccines are to be stored, they must be kept in an ultra-low temperature environment of minus 70°C.
There was good news about the COVID-19 vaccine in the United States, but it was quickly poured cold water by the WHO. The WHO special envoy David stated that the emergence of the vaccine cannot completely change the threat of the COVID-19 virus. Therefore, countries around the world cannot relax their vigilance.
It is completely impossible to end the epidemic in 2021! Herd immunity is ineffective, and vaccines are not a panacea. Only when vaccines and prevention and control measures are used together can they have a decisive effect. The virus will mutate very quickly in a laissez-faire state, which may cause the vaccine to fail.
Questions from the audience
Are there any side effects of the vaccine?
Judging from the data of more than 20 million people who received the first shot of the vaccine, the vaccine is generally safe. A small number of people have local pain, some mild discomfort, and no serious allergic reactions.
Is vaccination still effective when the virus continues to mutate?
From the test report of China’s Sinopharm’s COVID-19 vaccine, it can be seen that the vaccine is still effective against mutant viruses of current typical significance, including the mutant virus that appeared in the United Kingdom, but the final effect still depends on the long-term actual situation in the future.
70 years old, 14 years after coronary stent surgery, the condition is relatively stable, can I get the COVID-19 vaccine in this situation?
At present, more than 20 million people who are vaccinated are between 18 and 59 years old. For people over 59 years old, stents are put on. If they are in good health and do not have chronic diseases, diabetes, uremia and similar serious diseases , It can still be vaccinated. But the current vaccinated population does not include this age group over 59 years old
How durable is the vaccine? Should it be vaccinated every year like the flu vaccine?
As I said in my lecture, the longest trial period of all vaccines is only eight or nine months, so there is no problem with the protection for half a year. It is necessary to wait for the durability of the vaccine before we can draw a conclusion in the future.
Can ordinary people fight if they want? How should they fight? Where to fight?
Now vaccination is mainly for eight key groups, and ordinary people still need to wait for some time for vaccination. The country’s current policy is to give priority to vaccinations for those who are most likely to be exposed to the new coronavirus.
Can people with allergies and urticaria get the COVID-19 vaccine?
First of all, you must meet the age of vaccination, and if you know that you are allergic, have a serious history of allergies or urticaria, I suggest not to fight. But if allergies are mild, you can still fight
Are different vaccines good or bad?
There is no good or bad, each vaccine has its own advantages and disadvantages. The mechanism and preparation process of different vaccine research and development directions are different, and the advantages and disadvantages are also obvious. There is no perfect and universal COVID-19 vaccine research and development direction. In addition to the greater safety risks of live attenuated vaccines, many other routes can be tried.
(source:internet, reference only)