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COVID-19 antibodies can be passed to the fetus through the placenta
COVID-19 antibodies can be passed to the fetus through the placenta. Is there a link between the concentration of SARS-CoV-2 (new coronavirus) specific antibodies in pregnant women and newborns?
A report published in “JAMA Pediatrics” on January 29 this year Studies (see References) have shown that pregnant women’s IgG (rather than IgM) antibodies can be effectively transmitted through the placenta, and this mother-derived IgG antibody can provide protection against neo-coronavirus infection for newborns.
In this cohort study of 1,714 pregnant women in total, 72 of 83 SARS-CoV-2 seropositive pregnant women passed SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies through the placenta, umbilical cord blood IgG concentration and maternal antibody concentration Directly related, and no IgM antibodies were detected in cord blood serum.
The rate of antibody transfer is related to the time from the initiation of the infection to the delivery of the pregnant woman, but has nothing to do with the severity of the pregnant woman’s infection. This means that SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies can be effectively transmitted through the placenta, and maternal antibodies can provide protection for newborns from SARS-CoV-2 infection.
In this study, most of the seropositive pregnant women at the Pennsylvania Hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, were asymptomatic, and the exposure time to the virus was uncertain. In the subgroup of pregnant women whose viral NP-PCR test can estimate the time of infection start, if a pregnant woman’s NP-PCR test positive occurs 17 days before delivery or earlier, all umbilical cord sera are positive.
The findings of this study are consistent with studies on vaccine-induced pertussis, rubella, hepatitis B, and influenza antibodies. In these studies, the delivery efficiency of umbilical cord serum/maternal serum was between 0.8 and 1.7. However, this study did not conclude that SARS-CoV-2 will not be transmitted to the fetus before birth.
In this cohort study, 72 of 83 seropositive pregnant women passed SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies through the placenta, and the IgG concentration in cord blood was directly related to the concentration of maternal antibodies. In contrast, no IgM antibodies were detected in cord blood serum. The transfer rate is related to the time from maternal infection to delivery, and has nothing to do with the severity of maternal infection.
The study cohort included 1,714 pregnant women with an average age of 32 years, of which 26.3% were identified as black/non-Hispanic, 51.3% were white/non-Hispanic, 11.8% were Hispanic, 7.3% were Asian, and 3.3% were Other races/ethnicities.
Among 1,471 pairs of sera available for pregnant/newborn pairs, 83 pregnant women had SARS-CoV-2 IgG and/or IgM antibodies (6%; 95% CI, 5%-7%). Of the 83 newborns born to these 83 IgG and/or IgM antibody-positive pregnant women, 72 had IgG detected in the cord blood (87%; 95% CI, 78%-93%). IgM was not detected in cord blood samples. No antibodies were detected in babies born to all seronegative pregnant women.
Among the 83 seropositive pregnant women, 11 of the pregnant women had negative seroantibodies: 5 of these 11 (45%) mothers only had IgM antibodies, and the other 6 (55%) mothers The IgG concentration was significantly lower than the IgG concentration of other seropositive infant mothers.
Cord blood IgG concentration was positively correlated with maternal IgG concentration (r = 0.886; P < .001).
The transplacental metastasis rate of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and mild, moderate, and severe COVID-19 (new coronavirus pneumonia) patients is greater than 1.0. The rate of metastasis increases with the increase in the time between infection and delivery of pregnant women.
This study has several limitations, including only collecting samples in a single hospital; only a small number of premature infants; reliance on retrospective medical records for review, which limits the evaluation of COVID-19 symptoms during pregnancy; and lack of information on postpartum discharge results .
Due to the limited number of samples of premature infants, researchers cannot individually study the relationship between gestational age and the ability to transfer antibodies through the placenta, nor can it be ruled out that SARS-CoV-2 infection at a specific time point during pregnancy may affect the antibodies that occur through the placenta. The efficiency of the transfer.
(source:internet, reference only)