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Nature: How human body’s antibodies help coronavirus after infection?
Nature: How human body’s antibodies help coronavirus after infection? Humoral immunity plays two diametrically opposed roles in COVID-19. Although neutralizing antibodies have a protective effect on neocoronavirus infection, more and more evidence shows that humoral immune disorders also contribute to the characteristic immunopathology of neocoronavirus infection.
Recent studies have confirmed the autoantibody characteristics and immunopathological characteristics of patients infected with the new coronavirus. Some autoantibodies, especially neutralizing antibodies against IFN-I, seem to directly promote the disease progression of patients infected with the new coronavirus by fighting the inherent antiviral response.
Although people have studied several disease-modifying autoantibody responses, studies on a comprehensive description of the autoantibody responses of patients infected with the new coronavirus are still lacking, and their impact on immunology and clinical prognosis is still uncertain.
On May 19, 2021, Akiko Iwasaki and Aaron M. Ring of Yale University School of Medicine, as co-corresponding authors, published a research paper titled Diverse Functional Autoantibodies in Patients with COVID-19 in Nature.
The study found that patients infected with the new coronavirus will have a large number of antibodies against themselves, disrupting the body’s immune function and aggravating the disease. This not only explains the immunopathology of some COVID-19 diseases, but also provides important insights for future disease control.
First, the research team used a high-throughput autoantibody discovery method called Rapid Extracellular Antigen Profile (REAP), and found that compared with the control group, autoantibodies against the exoprotein group were elevated in patients infected with the new coronavirus. Among them, autoantibodies against immune-related proteins are elevated in severe patients, again indicating the association between these autoantibodies and new coronavirus infection.
Further analysis of these autoantibodies revealed that many of them are directed against immune-related proteins, which are involved in biochemical links including activation of lymphocytes, white blood cell movement, and type 1 and type 3 interferon reactions. It shows that autoantibodies produced in patients infected with the new coronavirus will have a wide range of effects on immune function.
Since patients’ autoantibodies may affect the circulating concentration of their target proteins, the research team tested the cytokines and chemokines of patients with autoantibodies and evaluated the in vitro activity of specific autoantibodies. The results show that the immune-targeted autoantibodies of patients infected with the new coronavirus can directly inhibit the activity of cytokines and chemokines, and participate in the FcR effector function, resulting in a decrease in immune cells, which may be that autoantibodies block IFN and IL 18 Reasons for signal pathways. In addition, patients with these autoantibodies have a longer hospital stay.
In order to prove the effect of autoantibodies on the body, the research team injected anti-IFN or IL-18 antibodies into mice that mimic the new coronavirus infection, which aggravated the infection and promoted the deterioration of the disease, emphasizing the autoantibody-mediated IFN and IL- 18 Blocks the destructive effect in the immune response to the COVID-19 infection.
In general, the study constructed a map of autoantibodies in patients infected with the new coronavirus, and also found specific autoantibodies that can greatly affect the immune response and clinical prognosis. These related immune responses have not received enough attention before, and the findings of this study emphasize their importance and point out new ideas for the treatment of potential new coronavirus infections.
(source:internet, reference only)