July 13, 2024

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Pizza and Burgers may cause intestinal inflammation and infection?

Pizza and Burgers may cause intestinal inflammation and infection?

 

Pizza and Burgers may cause intestinal inflammation and infection?  Everyone has discovered that there are more and more obese people nowadays. Obesity diets (also known as “Western diets”) are high in fat and sugar, such as burgers, French fries, and pizzas that we eat most often. However, what is eaten is not good food, it is fat!

Pizza and Burgers may cause intestinal inflammation and infection?

Paneth cells, also known as Paneth cells, are characteristic cells of the small intestinal glands, which can secrete antimicrobial peptides and are essential for the innate immunity of the intestine. Studies have shown that in mice, Paneth cell dysfunction can cause mucosal dysfunction, leading to Crohn’s disease. Therefore, Paneth cell defect or dysfunction may be the cause of inflammatory bowel disease. Normal Paneth cell function is the key to anti-inflammatory in the intestine. Whether obesity will affect the function of Paneth cells is currently unknown.

Researchers from the Department of Pathology and Immunology at the University of Washington School of Medicine published a study titled Western diet induces Paneth cell defects through microbiome alterations and farnesoid X receptor and type I interferon activation in Cell Host & Microbe. The study found that the Western diet leads to Paneth cell dysfunction through mechanisms that rely on the microbiome and farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and type I interferon (IFN) signaling. Also, obesity is related to Paneth cell dysfunction.

 

In order to exclude the influence of other lifestyle or environmental factors on Paneth cells, the researchers used the Paneth cell phenotype database (now there are 930 individuals from multiple diseases) to search for other characteristics related to Paneth cell phenotype abnormalities. . The results show that there is a correlation between the percentage of Paneth cell abnormalities and the increase in body mass index, that is, overweight and obese people are prone to Paneth cell defects.

Subsequently, the researchers fed mice on a Western diet with Paneth cell defects, and this functional defect is reversible.

In order to determine the molecular mechanism of Paneth cell defects induced by Western diet, the researchers performed RNA-seq analysis on the full-thickness small intestine of mice on Western diet and normal diet. The results showed that genes related to FXR activation are closely related to Western dietary feeding. In addition, in non-IBD subjects with a BMI greater than 25, the mRNA expression of genes related to the activation of the FXR pathway was increased.

More importantly, activation of FXR by drugs can specifically inhibit genes related to Paneth cell function. In addition, the researchers also found that the expression of IFN-stimulated genes in the ileum of mice fed on a Western diet increased, and the biological activity of type I IFN in the serum increased. These results indicate that Paneth cell defects in mice on a Western diet are related to activated FXR and type I IFN signaling. Excessive FXR activation can activate type I IFN and directly mediate Paneth cell defects in the intestinal epithelium.

In addition, the researchers found that treatment with FXR agonists in mice can increase the mortality of Salmonella; and in FXR knockout mice, the mortality of Salmonella was significantly reduced. By mass spectrometry analysis of the bile acid cholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, polyphenolic acid, primary bile acid and lithocholic acid levels in the small intestine, it was found that in mice fed on a Western diet, Paneth cell defects can induce primary bile acid and Lithocholic acid increases significantly, and microorganisms can promote the conversion of bile acids.

In short, studies have shown that long-term consumption of a Western diet rich in fat and sugar can impair the function of intestinal immune cells, thereby promoting inflammatory bowel disease or increasing the risk of intestinal infections. Researchers said that they are studying how to restore Paneth cell function by targeting bile acids or FXR/I IFN; but whether people who are used to eating Western food can improve intestinal immunity by changing their diet is still awaiting further research . Obesity is not something you can eat overnight. For your health, let go of the pizza in your hand!

 

 

(source:internet, reference only)


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