May 19, 2024

Medical Trend

Medical News and Medical Resources

T cell guidelines for patients with COVID-19 pneumonia

T cell guidelines for patients with COVID-19 pneumonia

 

T cell guidelines for patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.   Scientists from the La Jolla Institute for Immunology (LJI) have brought together the research results of COVID-19 researchers from all over the world. The results are amazing: human T cells can target more than 1,400 sites of the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

 

Scientists at the La Jolla Institute of Immunology (LJI) have assembled the results of COVID-19 researchers from all over the world in a new paper. The results are amazing: human T cells can target more than 1,400 sites of the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

Dr. Daniela Weiskopf, LJI Research Assistant Professor, said: “Our laboratory and many other laboratories have shown this very broad and diverse T cell response.”

This kind of research review is called “meta-analysis,” and it brings together the results of multiple studies, and researchers carefully consider how these studies are conducted.

As far as COVID-19 is concerned, the global meta-analysis of T cell response research is particularly useful, because based on genetic differences and past medical history, the immune response of different patient groups may vary greatly.

“This really highlights that the study of SARS-CoV-2 is a global undertaking,” said LJI professors Alessandro Sette and Dr. biol. Sci, the senior author of the review and a member of the LJI Center for Infectious Diseases and Vaccines. “Combining information from all the different laboratories is a very powerful thing.”

 

Focus:

Researchers evaluated all 25 known human T cell response studies conducted between the start of the COVID-19 pandemic and March 15, 2021.

Studies have shown that human T cells respond to 1,434 CD4 and CD8 epitopes. An epitope is a site on SARS-CoV-2 that can be recognized by T cells.

Bringing these studies together for a larger-scale analysis revealed several “immune dominant” sites on the virus. These areas are the easiest places for T cells to target.

This extensive T cell response makes it difficult for the SARS-CoV-2 variant to acquire enough mutations to “escape” the body’s response to the virus.

 

Seth added that this analysis can help researchers monitor whether T cells respond effectively to virus variants and vaccines. He said: “Understanding the key sites of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is particularly important for monitoring the immune response to the COVID-19 vaccine.”

Despite these encouraging results, the review is limited. The researchers emphasize that current research tends to include mainly white participants. By expanding this study to include many ethnicities, researchers can better understand the differences in COVID-19 mortality.

Specifically, the researchers hope to understand how variations in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system affect T cell responses. The HLA molecules of the immune system control which epitope T cells can “see”. The frequency of different HLA molecule types varies by race, so research needs to consider how these differences affect the T cell response and the severity of potential COVID-19 cases.

LJI lecturer Dr. Alba Grifoni is the first author of the review. He said: “This is a global epidemic, so it is important to expand our research.”

The new review also emphasizes the value of the Immune Epitope Database (IEDB), a free resource funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and operated by lji. By adding known epitope data to the IEDB, researchers can see different research results at the same time.

“We know that T cells have a strong response to SARS-CoV-2,” Grifoni said. “Now, we are trying to determine where we have knowledge gaps.”

 

(source:internet, reference only)


Disclaimer of medicaltrend.org