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What human diseases can antibiotics can also treat except bacterial infections?
What human diseases can antibiotics can also treat except bacterial infections? A new study in Nature Communications shows that eukaryotic ribosomes can be modified like prokaryotic ribosomes to respond to antibiotics.
Picture: An antibiotic (green), combined in human-like yeast ribosomes (grey), allows the synthesis of some proteins (indicated by orange, purple, and blue), but not others (dark green). Maxim Svetlov/UIC
Researchers at the University of Illinois Chicago said antibiotics used to treat common bacterial infections such as pneumonia and sinusitis may also be used to treat human diseases such as cancer.
As outlined in a new study in Nature Communications, the UIC School of Pharmacy team showed in laboratory experiments that eukaryotic ribosomes can be modified like prokaryotic ribosomes to respond to antibiotics.
Fungi, plants, and animals-like humans-are all eukaryotes; they are made up of cells with a well-defined nucleus. On the other hand, bacteria are prokaryotes. They are made up of cells that have no nucleus and have different structures, sizes, and properties. The ribosomes of eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells are responsible for the protein synthesis required for cell growth and reproduction, and they are also different.
“Some antibiotics used to treat bacterial infections work in an interesting way. They bind to the ribosomes of bacterial cells and selectively inhibit protein synthesis. Some proteins can be made, but others cannot.” Alexander Mankin Said that he is Professor Alexander Nefak of the UIC School of Pharmacy of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy and the senior author of the study. “If you don’t make these proteins, the bacteria will die.”
When people use antibiotics to treat infections, the patient’s cells are not affected because the drug is not designed to bind to ribosomes that are different in shape from eukaryotic cells.
“Because there are many human diseases caused by the expression of excess protein, which is common in many types of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases, for example, we want to know if it is possible to use antibiotics to prevent human cells from making excess protein, and only Extra protein,” Mankin said.
To answer this question, Mankin and the first author of the study and Maxim Svetlov, a research assistant professor in the Department of Pharmacy, studied yeast, a eukaryotic organism that resembles human cells.
Mankin said that the research team’s partners came from Germany and Switzerland, and they performed a “cool trick.” “We modified the yeast ribosomes to be more like bacteria.”
Mankin and Svetlov’s team used biochemistry and excellent genetics to change one of the more than 7,000 nucleotides in yeast ribosomal RNA, which is enough to make macrolide antibiotics act on yeast ribosomes-large Cyclolactone antibiotics are common antibiotics that work by binding to bacterial ribosomes. Using this yeast model, researchers apply genome analysis and high-resolution structural analysis to understand how each protein in the cell is synthesized and how the macrolide interacts with the yeast ribosome.
Mankin said: “Through analysis, we learned that according to the specific gene characteristics of the protein, whether the macrolide can stop the production of macrolide on the eukaryotic ribosome depends on the “good” or “bad” sequence. Exist.” “This shows us that, conceptually, antibiotics can be used to selectively inhibit protein synthesis in human cells and to treat human diseases caused by’bad’ proteins.”
The experiments of UIC researchers provide a stage for further research. “Now that we know these concepts are working, we can look for antibiotics that can bind to unmodified eukaryotic ribosomes and optimize them to inhibit only those proteins that are harmful to humans,” Mankin said.
(source:internet, reference only)