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Guidelines for Screening and Prevention of Colorectal Cancer and Breast Cancer
Guidelines for Screening and Prevention of Colorectal Cancer and Breast Cancer. Early detection, early diagnosis, and early treatment.
The World Health Organization‘s “World Cancer Report” predicts that by 2025, the number of new cancer cases worldwide will increase to 19 million annually, to 22 million by 2030, and to 24 million by 2035.
Cancer screening and early diagnosis and treatment have been recognized as cancer prevention and control measures.
- Asymptomatic people over 45 years old;
- Two weeks of anorectal symptoms over the age of 40 (refers to any of the following symptoms lasting more than two weeks: changes in stool habits (constipation, diarrhea, etc.); changes in stool shape (feces become thinner); changes in stool properties (hematochezia, mucous stool, etc.) ; People with pain in fixed parts of abdomen);
- Patients suffering from ulcerative colitis for a long time;
- People after colorectal cancer surgery;
- People after colorectal adenoma treatment;
- An immediate family member with a family history of colorectal cancer;
- An immediate family member of a patient diagnosed with hereditary colorectal cancer (referring to familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC)), who is over 20 years old.
1. “General population” screening according to 1~5:
(1) Colorectal cancer screening starts at the age of 45, regardless of men and women, fecal occult blood (FOBT) is tested once a year, and colonoscopy is performed once every 10 years until the age of 75;
(2) Those who are 76 to 85 years old, who are physically fit and whose life expectancy is more than 10 years, can continue to be screened;
(3) Over 85 years old, it is not recommended to continue screening.
1. Exercise can reduce the occurrence of tumors, adhere to physical exercise, and avoid obesity;
2. Healthy diet, increase the intake of crude fiber, fresh fruit, and avoid high-fat and high-protein diet;
3. Quit smoking and avoid its long-term toxicity and inflammatory irritation to the digestive tract.
1. Patients with past breast duct or lobular dysplasia or lobular carcinoma in situ.
2. Received chest radiotherapy before 30 years old.
3. There is an obvious genetic tendency:
(1) Those who have breast cancer in the family, the age of onset is before 45 years old;
(2) There are 2 breast cancer patients in the family (1 bilateral or 2 unilateral), and the age of onset is 45-50 years old;
(3) Two or more people in the family have breast cancer, or ovarian cancer, or fallopian tube cancer, or primary peritoneal cancer;
(4) There are male breast cancer patients in the family;
(5) Those who have had breast cancer, or ovarian cancer, or fallopian tube cancer, or primary peritoneal cancer.
1. General women
(1) Screening is not recommended before the age of 40;
(2) Screening starts at the age of 40, and breast X-ray examination is recommended every 1 to 2 years;
(3) Those who are over 70 years old, physically fit, and have a life expectancy of more than 10 years are recommended to maintain screening, and mammography should be performed every 1 to 2 years.
2. People at high risk of breast cancer
(1) It is recommended to carry out breast cancer screening at 40 years of age or earlier;
(2) One breast x-ray examination every year;
(3) One breast ultrasound examination every 6-12 months;
(4) Breast examinations every 6-12 months;
(5) An enhanced MRI of the breast should be performed once a year if necessary.
1. Develop a healthy lifestyle, stay away from tobacco and alcohol, have reasonable nutrition, maintain a healthy weight, and keep exercising;
2. Give birth at the right time, breastfeeding;
3. Participate in breast screening and regular check-ups.
(source:internet, reference only)