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Nature: Stem cells successfully repair refractory type 1 diabetes
Nature: Stem cells successfully repair refractory type 1 diabetes. The application of stem cells has been very extensive, involving many fields of medicine.
As we all know, in the two major types of diabetes, type I diabetes and type II diabetes have huge differences in pathogenesis and treatment, and type I diabetes is more serious. Because type I diabetes is caused by the decline of the B cell function of its own pancreatic islets and insufficient insulin secretion, oral drugs are usually ineffective and require lifelong dependence on insulin injections for treatment.
What’s more frightening is that the blood sugar of type 1 diabetes is highly fluctuating. Once it is not well controlled, it is very prone to serious complications such as ketoacidosis, which is life-threatening and urgently needs more effective treatment.
Stem cells bring hope of cure for diabetic patients
On July 14, 2021, an article entitled “How Stem Cells Repair Refractory Type I Diabetes” in the internationally renowned journal “Nature”, the heavy research progress has brought better treatment options to these patients who have long been dependent on insulin And hope.
The latest research shows that the current main treatment for type 1 diabetes patients is insulin, but the frightening thing is that life expectancy is 12 years lower than the average!
The new research progress confirms that the key feature of stem cells is that they have the potential to differentiate into other cell types. Therefore, if the stem cells are successfully differentiated into pancreatic islet B cells, they will be able to successfully repair refractory type 1 diabetes and bring completeness to patients. Hope of healing. Fast forward to show the diabetes friends around you to see this latest research progress.
The “myth” insulin for treating diabetes and incurable pain
Insulin has always been one of the most revolutionary discoveries in medicine. After the successful isolation of this hormone in 1921, type I diabetes (T1D, hereinafter collectively referred to as TID) became a treatable disease instead of a terminal illness. However, people still hope that the treatment of this dependence can be replaced by a better treatment plan.
so horrible! The average life expectancy of type 1 diabetes is 12 years lower than the average!
Here, let’s take a simple science popularization. The insulin secreted by the normal human body is very important to maintain the safe level of glucose in the blood. It is produced by B (β) cells in the pancreas. The B cells continuously monitor the circulating glucose concentration and secrete insulin accordingly-the higher the sugar level, the more hormones are released to remove excess sugar from the body. However, in T1D patients, beta cells are destroyed by the body’s own immune system. T1D is considered to be one of the unresolved diseases in regenerative medicine. This is a special phenomenon in which autoimmunity selectively kills a single cell type.
In type 1 diabetes, immune cells (red) attack beta cells (green) in the pancreatic islets. Image source: Ali Asadi (Kiefer Lab)
Two fatal hazards of diabetes to the human body
The cause of this autoimmune deficiency, which usually occurs in childhood, is still unclear, but the major impact of two points on the human body is very clear:
1. Without insulin secreted by β cells, the sugar level in the circulation continues to rise. This chronic hyperglycemia will damage blood vessels and nerves and cause the accumulation of adverse effects. If not treated in time, it will lead to death.
2. Although we can reduce the impact of T1D by closely monitoring blood sugar and injecting insulin. But for most people, this means that they need to pay attention to their lives at all times, and manage their blood sugar levels, which seriously reduces their quality of life. Even so, the life expectancy of T1D patients is 12 years lower than the average!
Frederick Banting won the Nobel Prize in Physiology in 1923 for his discovery of insulin. However, he said that his discovery did not provide a panacea-he said at the end of the Nobel speech that “Insulin does not cure diabetes.” !
Twenty years of crystallization! Stem cells successfully repair refractory type 1 diabetes!
The results of this heavy research published in Nature in July are very exciting, because researchers have found a new and effective weapon that is expected to cure this malignant disease-stem cells.
As early as the beginning of the 21st century, researchers have successfully treated T1D patients by transplanting beta cells suitable for donors, but unfortunately because of the shortage of donors, this therapy has been limited.
However, with the rapid development of the medical field, stem cell biology has been able to create glucose-sensing and insulin-dispensing cells in the laboratory-providing an almost unlimited supply of the possibility of replacing pancreatic islet B cells.
In June 2021, a small clinical trial was announced at the annual meeting of the American Diabetes Association. In a small clinical trial, treatment with embryonic stem cells successfully helped T1D patients better control their blood sugar. This research result has completely changed the management of T1D patients. It is the crystallization of nearly 20 years of clinical research by scientists around the world. It may become a new hope for curing diabetes!
The emerging stem cell-derived islets can protect B cells from the immune system. Source: Nature
Future: Create “Super” Stem Cells with “Unlimited Supply”
One of the reasons why the medical community is excited about stem cells is that they have the potential to differentiate into other cell types.
The initial research found that stem cells extracted from embryos are very powerful, they can differentiate into almost any type of cell; after that, researchers have discovered that adult stem cells, also known as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC), can let stem cells follow through some signaling molecules. A specific trajectory develops to achieve a specific effect.
For diabetic patients, one of the great attractions of stem cell technology is that stem cells can become continuously dividing cell lines, and this kind of cells from a single donor can produce trillions of cell lines. So stem cells can be directly transformed into β cells, and self-renewing cell lines will provide inexhaustible cells.
The current research results have been very exciting. However, although the idea of making beta cells and transferring them into the human body sounds simple, there are still difficulties, such as which cells are most suitable for use, where should they be implanted, and the key The important thing is how to ensure that these foreign cells are not affected by the immune system.
Of course, in response to these difficulties, the medical community is still trying various new methods to break through, such as encapsulating stem cell therapy to prevent immune system attacks; and inserting a stem cell bag under the skin to implant, the purpose is also to avoid immunity System attacks and so on.
At present, there are a large number of clinical studies on stem cell treatment of diabetes in China, and patients who want to know more can privately write to the Stem Cell Encyclopedia.
Pancreatic cells are in a small bag. Image source: ViaCyte, Inc.
Nowadays, the application of stem cells has been very extensive, involving many fields of medicine. Stem cells can develop into specialized cells after stimulation, making it possible to replace cell and tissue sources, which can be used to treat countless diseases, physical discomforts and disabilities, in addition to diabetes, but also Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease ( Dementia), spinal cord injury, stroke, burns, heart disease, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. There is almost no medical field that is not covered by this invention. We look forward to the future use of stem cells in the clinical treatment of these chronic human diseases.
(sourceinternet, reference only)