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440K+ samples: 97% of the population has a high genetic risk of cancer
440K+ samples: 97% of the population has a high genetic risk of cancer. More than 440,000 samples revealed that 97% of the population has a high genetic risk of cancer, and a healthy lifestyle can effectively reduce the incidence of cancer!
Cancer has complex causes and is often regarded as the result of the interaction between genetic factors and living environment factors.
In 2016, a Nordic Twin’s Study , after 32 years of follow-up and a study of 200,000 pairs of twins, pointed out that the heritability rate of cancer was estimated to be 33%. The study also revealed that prostate cancer, The genetic risk of a series of cancers such as melanoma, breast cancer, ovarian cancer and uterine cancer.
And we all know that unhealthy lifestyles such as smoking, alcohol abuse, obesity, lack of physical activity, etc., will increase the risk of cancer. More than 40% of cancer cases and deaths are attributed to potentially variable risk factors, the most important of which is unhealthy lifestyle.
Recently, the research team of Nanjing Medical University published the latest research in Cancer Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR), entitled “Genetic Risk for Overall Cancer and the Benefit of Adherence to a Healthy Lifestyle”. The study constructed a set of incidence-weighted overall cancer polygenic risk score (CPRS), and through analysis pointed out that genetic risk and healthy lifestyle will affect the risk of cancer. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle will reduce the risk of cancer. risk.
In this study, the research team constructed a set of incidence-weighted overall cancer polygenic risk scores ( CPRS), and evaluated the effectiveness of CPRS in predicting the overall cancer risk of UK Biobank (UKB) samples, and the degree of association between a healthy lifestyle and the overall cancer risk reduction of different genetic risk groups.
A total of 442,501 participants were included in the final analysis for this study, including 202,842 men and 239,659 women. During the median follow-up period of 7.07 years, there were 26,320 cancer cases, of which 13,480 were men and 12,840 were women. The samples are all from UKB.
The results of the study showed that 97.17% of the participants (429984/442501) in the sample had a high genetic risk of at least one cancer. After studying the correlation between gender-specific CPRS and overall cancer risk, compared with non-cancer participants, participants with cancer had higher CPRS, and participants with higher CPRS were both male and female. Are more susceptible to multiple cancers.
So, what is the correlation between lifestyle factors and cancer risk? Researchers included five lifestyle factors: non-smoking, non-alcoholism, normal BMI, regular physical exercise, and healthy diet, and then divided individuals into good (4-5 healthy lifestyle factors) and moderate (2-3 In the UKB sample, most participants will have 2-3 healthy lifestyle habits. Studies have shown that all five healthy lifestyle factors are significantly associated with overall cancer risk. Among men and women, unhealthy lifestyle factors increase with a similar gradient to overall cancer risk.
Next, the researchers focused on the combined effects and interactions of genetic and lifestyle factors on overall cancer risk. The study showed that among participants with high genetic risk and poor lifestyles, the overall cancer rate per 100,000 men in a year The incidence rate is estimated to be 1545.90 (95% CI, 1456.93–1638.81), 1199.99 (95% CI, 1116.92–1287.57) for women, and 478.88 (95%) for men with low genetic risk and good lifestyle participants CI, 393.36–577.37), 536.01 for women (95% CI, 468.41–610.58). This shows that people with high genetic risk + poor lifestyle will have a higher risk of cancer.
If a bad lifestyle will affect the risk of cancer, will sticking to a healthy lifestyle affect the overall incidence of cancer? In a further stratified analysis with a bad lifestyle as the reference group, the study pointed out that in the genetic risk group, a good lifestyle was significantly associated with a lower risk of cancer. Among the participants with high genetic risk, the standardized 5-year cancer incidence rates for men and women with poor lifestyles were 7.23% and 5.77%, respectively, while those for men and women with good lifestyles were 5.51% and 3.69%, respectively. Among participants with low genetic risk, the standardized 5-year cancer incidence dropped from 4.14% and 3.42% for men and women with poor lifestyles to 2.24% and 2.53% for men and women with good lifestyles, respectively.
All in all, this study shows that few people are free from the high genetic risk of any cancer. Genetic risk and healthy lifestyle will affect the risk of cancer. At the same time, CPRS can increase a person’s susceptibility to hereditary cancer. And encourage them to participate in precision prevention strategies. This study also proves that improving food and living environment, and enacting public policies on tobacco control and alcohol restriction are essential for reducing the burden of cancer in the general population.
(source:internet, reference only)