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Harvard University: 3 servings of fruits + 2 servings of vegetables a day, this way to eat the most healthy and longevity
Healthy and longevity: 3 servings of fruits + 2 servings of vegetables a day. Fruits and vegetables are an important part of the human diet. A diet rich in fruits and vegetables can help reduce many health risks, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. These two diseases are also the main causes of modern human death. However, according to the statistics of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, only one in ten adults eat enough fruits and vegetables.
In the world, insufficient intake of fruits and vegetables is an important factor leading to disease and death, which is more obvious in developing countries and regions. Since the intake of fruits and vegetables is so important, how much is more beneficial to your health?
On March 1, 2021, the team of Professor Hu Bingchang, Dean of the Harvard School of Public Health, published an article titled: Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Mortality: Results From 2 Prospective Cohort Studies of US Men and Women and a Meta-Analysis of 26 Cohort Studies (Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Mortality: Results from two prospective cohort studies of American men and women and a meta-analysis of 26 cohort studies).
This 30-year study of nearly 2 million adults shows that high intake of fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower risk of death.
At the same time, the study also pointed out that eating 2 servings of fruits + 3 servings of vegetables (each serving is 80 grams) per day may be the best dosage and combination to extend life.
The research team named this dietary recommendation “5-a-day” (5 servings per day).
To determine the best daily intake of fruits and vegetables, the research team first analyzed data from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS), which included more than 100,000 adults (66,719 females, 42016 males), followed up for 30 years.
Both research data contains detailed dietary information (including the consumption of fruits and vegetables) that is repeatedly collected every two to four years, as well as the age, height, weight, smoking, drinking, exercise, and other information of participants, as well as lipid lowering , Use of antihypertensive drugs, family history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer, etc.
The researchers also compiled data on fruit and vegetable intake and mortality in 26 other studies, including 1.9 million participants from 29 countries and regions in North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia.
The above research data of 2 million people show that:
1. Eating 5 servings of fruits and vegetables a day is associated with the lowest risk of death. Eating more than 5 servings a day does not add any additional benefits.
2. Eating 2 servings of fruits + 3 servings of vegetables per day is related to the longest life span.
3. Compared with people who eat 2 servings of fruits and vegetables a day, people who eat 5 servings of fruits and vegetables a day have a 13% reduction in overall risk of death; cardiovascular disease causes a 12% reduction in death risk; cancer death risk is reduced by 10%; The risk of death from respiratory diseases has been reduced by 35%.
4. Not all foods considered as fruits and vegetables provide the same benefits. For example, starchy vegetables such as peas and corn, fruit juices and potatoes have not reduced the risk of disease and death.
5. Green leafy vegetables (such as spinach, lettuce and kale, etc.), as well as fruits and vegetables rich in β-carotene and vitamin C (such as citrus fruits, berries and carrots, etc.) can reduce the risk of disease and death.
As the intake of fruits and vegetables increased, the overall mortality rate dropped significantly. After the intake reached 5 servings, there was almost no additional benefit.
Current dietary recommendations usually include all types of fruits and vegetables on the recommended list, but this study shows that starchy vegetables, fruit juices, and potatoes are not as helpful to health as other fruits and vegetables.
In addition, the results of the analysis in two research cohorts in the United States are similar to the results of 26 cohorts from around the world, indicating that these findings are widely valid for the world’s population.
The research team also said that the limitation of this study is that it is observational, indicating that there is an association between the consumption of fruits and vegetables and the risk of death, but it fails to point out a direct causal relationship between the two.
Many dietary guidelines tell us to eat more fruits and vegetables, and this study not only provides strong evidence to prove the health and longevity benefits of eating fruits and vegetables, but more importantly, the study points out an optimal consumption standard.
Overall, this large-scale study determined the optimal intake of fruits and vegetables, showing that eating 2 servings of fruit + 3 servings of vegetables a day is the most beneficial in preventing major chronic diseases, reducing disease-related deaths, and extending lifespan of. Moreover, this consumption is a relatively easy amount for the general public.
(source:internet, reference only)