December 4, 2022

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2022丨Breakthrough in blood testing may promote the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease

2022丨Breakthrough in blood testing may promote the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease



2022丨Breakthrough in blood testing may promote the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease

In the past few decades, although biomedicine has made progress in cancer and other diseases, neuroscience has proved to be a difficult problem.

However, with the emergence of new testing methods for Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease, the status quo may soon change.

We are expected to make some exciting developments in 2022, including new methods for checking the accumulation of certain proteins in the brain, as well as broader and more convenient blood screening methods.

2022丨Breakthrough in blood testing may promote the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease


Oxford Parkinson’s screening recognition rate is as high as 89%

This month, researchers from the Oxford Parkinson’s Disease Center demonstrated the basic principles of a potential new disease test.

A sample of cerebrospinal fluid is collected from the lower spine through a lumbar puncture. The researchers use a method called real-time shock-induced conversion to obtain the sample.

Mix with a sample of specially labeled α-synuclein particles to observe and analyze the protein reaction, including whether the characteristic protein clumps begin to grow.

The test method is based on previous studies of alpha-synuclein and has been proven to accurately and reproducibly identify 89% of Parkinson’s patients, while also excluding 96% of non-Parkinson’s patients.

However, because no link was found between the diagnosis and the severity of symptoms, further research is needed to link the test to the measurement of Parkinson’s disease progression, but the test method has been shown to provide a window into the molecular mechanisms of the brain.

It is worth noting that α-synuclein is the core of Parkinson’s research, such as ACI mmune biotechnology company, the company is also using this protein as a PET imaging tracer as well as antibody therapy and vaccine research and development targets.


A drop of blood to screen for Alzheimer’s disease

C2N Diagnostics, a company that develops blood tests for Alzheimer’s disease, began to introduce a new test method at the end of 2020. The test can detect patients with early signs of memory loss.

The test relies on mass spectrometry to measure the floating of amyloid beta peptide and different versions of apolipoprotein E in the blood. These proteins are common risk factors of Alzheimer’s disease. 

Although the test itself cannot diagnose Alzheimer’s disease, this non-invasive diagnostic method can be used for a wider range of clinical evaluations.

C2N said that the Precivity AD test can help predict the state of amyloid plaques in the brain, which is also one of the hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases.

Recent data even shows that the accuracy of the test is basically in line with the PET scan.

In addition, with the approval of the amyloid-targeted Aduhelm treatment by the FDA this year, there may be a high demand for test tools for the objective measurement of biomarkers of the disease in the future.

Quanterix, another test and research company, said that compared with amyloid beta, measuring certain types of tau in blood samples may better explain the progress of the disease.

The technology produced by the company has been used in Biogen. And Eli Lilly’s clinical trials.

The researchers found that the Simoa blood test searches for the presence of a tau protein called pTau-181 in the patient’s blood. Differentiate patients with rare neurodegenerative diseases (called frontotemporal degeneration).

Although the test is currently only for research use, Quanterix’s blood test received a breakthrough designation from the FDA in October.

The company will continue to develop its potential as a clinical diagnostic aid for Alzheimer’s disease, including for those over 50 years of age.

Patients who show early signs of cognitive decline are tested.

References:

2022 forecast: Blood test breakthroughs set to move the needle in Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s research

Common risk factors.

(source:internet, reference only)


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