October 2, 2022

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PD-L1 can also be used as an obesity treatment target in addition to anti-cancer

PD-L1 can also be used as an obesity treatment target in addition to anti-cancer



 

A new way to lose weight: PD-L1 can also be used as an obesity treatment target in addition to anti-cancer

 

 

With the improvement of living standards and changes in living habits, the incidence of overweight and obesity has continued to soar in countries around the world, and has evolved into a global health problem.

It is worth noting that obesity is closely related to the body’s metabolism and immune function, and a key feature is that obesity causes low levels of inflammation, which predisposes the body to metabolic syndrome. However, the specific mechanism behind this phenomenon has not been thoroughly studied.

 

Recently, researchers from Trinity University Dublin published a research paper titled: Innate PD-L1 limits T cell–mediated adipose tissue inflammation and ameliorates diet-induced obesity in Science Translational Medicine .

 

This study shows that PD-L1 on dendritic cells (DCs) controls adaptive immune responses within adipose tissue to limit diet-induced obesity . In mice on a high-fat diet, PD-L1 deficiency in dendritic cells promotes increased adiposity and impaired adipose tissue T-cell polarization.

 

PD-L1 also plays such a regulatory role in human adipose tissue, and PD-L1 expression in visceral adipose tissue is positively correlated with weight gain in obese individuals .

Therefore, this study defines a mechanism of adipose tissue homeostasis controlled by dendritic cell expression of PD-L1, which may be associated with immune-related adverse events during immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy.

 

This finding proposes a new pathway for the regulation of inflammation in adipose tissue, and also provides a new idea for the treatment of obesity.

 

 

 

 

The growing global prevalence of obesity has become one of the greatest challenges facing health care systems.

Statistics show that 1.9 billion adults are overweight and 600 million are obese in the world, and it is estimated that 51% of the global population will be obese by 2030.

What’s more, obesity will not only cause inconvenience to daily life, but also further lead to various metabolic syndromes. Such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) , cardiovascular disease, and cancer.

 

Interestingly, more and more studies have shown that the immune system of obese patients is severely dysregulated, leading to the development of inflammation. In other words, immune regulation plays an important role in adipose tissue homeostasis.

However, how the non-inflammatory homeostatic environment is disrupted and how inflammation contributes to obesity remains poorly understood.

 

In this latest study, the research team reports that a co-stimulatory molecule, programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) , has an important limiting effect on diet-induced obesity.

 

PD-L1 can also be used as an obesity treatment target in addition to anti-cancerImmune checkpoint PD-L1 is strongly associated with obesity suppression

 

The researchers found that conditional knockout of the PD-L1 gene in dendritic cells (DCs) from mice suppressed diet-induced weight gain and metabolic syndrome.

In contrast, PD-L1 expression on type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) , T cells, and macrophages is dispensable for obesity control.

In in vitro co-culture, dendritic cells interacted with T cells and ILC2s via the PD-L1:PD-1 axis to inhibit T helper type 1 cell proliferation and promote type 2 polarization, respectively.

 

PD-L1 can also be used as an obesity treatment target in addition to anti-cancerConditional knockdown of PD-L1 in ILCs, T cells and macrophages has no effect on obesity

 

Notably, PD-L1 also has a regulatory role in human adipose tissue, and PD-L1 expression in visceral fat in obese people is positively correlated with weight gain.

Based on this, the research team defined a mechanism by which dendritic cells express PD-L1 to control adipose tissue homeostasis, which may be a clinical finding associated with immune-related adverse events during immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy.

 

The researchers then showed that in mice fed a Western-style “high-fat” diet, the loss of PD-L1 was associated with a significant reduction in the development of obesity and diabetes .

This means that a small change in the many cell populations in fat can have such a large impact on obesity outcomes.

 

PD-L1 can also be used as an obesity treatment target in addition to anti-cancerImmune checkpoint inhibition accelerates weight loss in obese mice

 

 

Corresponding author of the study, Dr Padraic Fallon from Trinity University Dublin , said: “The new process of immune checkpoint regulation in visceral fat in obese individuals advances our understanding of how the immune system controls diet-induced weight gain, which lead to obesity and type 2 diabetes.”

 

This finding has broader implications for addressing how obesity affects comorbidity with other diseases, as shown in the COVID-19 pandemic, where obese patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 are more likely to develop critical care Severe illness and a higher risk of death.

 

Not only that, these research findings also provide new ideas for the treatment of obesity .

Perhaps in the near future, humans will be able to manipulate immune checkpoints (such as PD-L1) on specific cell populations through drugs , helping obese patients to achieve weight loss more easily and efficiently.

 

 

 

Reference :
https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/scitranslmed.abj6879

PD-L1 can also be used as an obesity treatment target in addition to anti-cancer

(source:internet, reference only)


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