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Why do men still need to receive HPV vaccine?
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Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a group of related viruses that can infect various parts of the body, leading to different health issues.
While HPV is often associated with cervical cancer in women, it’s essential to recognize that men are also at risk of HPV-related diseases.
The HPV vaccine, originally developed to prevent cervical cancer in women, has proven effective in preventing various cancers and other health conditions in men.
Here are some reasons why men should still receive the HPV vaccine:
HPV Infection in Men:
- Men can get infected with HPV through sexual contact, just like women. HPV infections in men commonly affect the genital area, including the penis, scrotum, and anus.
- HPV can also infect the mouth and throat, increasing the risk of oropharyngeal cancers (cancers in the back of the throat, including the base of the tongue and tonsils). This risk has been steadily increasing, and HPV is now a leading cause of oropharyngeal cancers in men.
Anal Cancer Risk:
- Men who have sex with men are at a higher risk of HPV-related diseases, particularly anal cancer. Anal cancer is closely associated with persistent HPV infections, especially high-risk types like HPV-16 and HPV-18.
- The HPV vaccine has been shown to be effective in preventing anal cancer in both men and women by protecting against the specific HPV types responsible for many cases of anal cancer.
Oropharyngeal Cancer Risk:
- HPV-related oropharyngeal cancers are becoming more prevalent in men. The vaccine has been demonstrated to be effective in preventing infections with the high-risk HPV types that commonly cause these cancers.
- Since these cancers may not manifest symptoms until they are at an advanced stage, preventing the HPV infection through vaccination is a crucial strategy for reducing the risk of oropharyngeal cancers.
Preventing Transmission to Partners:
- By getting vaccinated, men can reduce the likelihood of becoming infected with HPV and subsequently transmitting the virus to their sexual partners.
- Vaccination contributes to herd immunity, meaning that as more people in the population are vaccinated, the overall transmission of the virus decreases, protecting those who may not be eligible for vaccination.
- The HPV vaccine provides protection against several high-risk HPV types that are associated with various cancers in both men and women. This includes cervical, vulvar, and vaginal cancers in women, as well as anal and oropharyngeal cancers in both sexes.
- The vaccine also protects against low-risk HPV types that can cause genital warts in both men and women.
Effectiveness of Vaccination:
- Clinical studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of the HPV vaccine in preventing infections and related diseases. The vaccine has been shown to be safe and well-tolerated.
- HPV vaccination is most effective when administered before sexual activity begins and before exposure to the virus. However, even individuals who have already been sexually active can benefit from vaccination since the vaccine covers several HPV types.
In summary, men are susceptible to HPV infections and related cancers, including anal and oropharyngeal cancers.
The HPV vaccine has proven to be an effective preventive measure, offering protection against a range of HPV-related diseases in both men and women.
It is an essential tool in public health efforts to reduce the burden of HPV-related cancers and improve overall population health.
HPV vaccine is effective in preventing anal and oropharyngeal cancers?
Effectiveness in Preventing Anal Cancer:
- The HPV vaccine has demonstrated efficacy in reducing the risk of anal cancer in both men and women.
- Men who have sex with men and individuals with compromised immune systems, including those with HIV, are at a higher risk of anal cancer related to persistent HPV infections. The vaccine has been particularly beneficial in reducing this risk.
- By vaccinating a significant portion of the population, including men, against HPV, there is an indirect protective effect, known as herd immunity. This helps reduce the overall transmission of the virus, benefiting those who may not be eligible for vaccination.
Effectiveness in Preventing Oropharyngeal Cancer:
Reduction in Infections:
- The vaccine has shown effectiveness in reducing the incidence of HPV infections, including those with high-risk types linked to oropharyngeal cancers.
- Oropharyngeal cancers involve the base of the tongue and tonsils, and the vaccine has been designed to target the specific HPV types associated with these cancers.
Decreased Cancer Risk:
- Studies have indicated a decrease in the risk of oropharyngeal cancers in individuals who have been vaccinated against HPV.
- The vaccine contributes to preventing persistent infections with high-risk HPV types, subsequently lowering the risk of developing oropharyngeal cancers.
- The HPV vaccine is most effective when administered before individuals become sexually active and before potential exposure to the virus. However, even those who have already been sexually active can benefit from vaccination.
- The effectiveness of the vaccine is contingent on a high level of vaccination coverage within the population, as this helps reduce the overall prevalence of HPV.
Protection Against Multiple HPV Types:
- The HPV vaccine provides protection against several high-risk HPV types, offering comprehensive coverage against various HPV-related cancers in both men and women.
In summary, the HPV vaccine is a valuable tool in preventing not only cervical cancer but also other HPV-related cancers, including anal and oropharyngeal cancers.
It plays a crucial role in public health strategies aimed at reducing the burden of HPV-associated diseases and improving overall population health.
About HPV vaccines.
1. Vaccine Types:
- Protects against nine types of HPV: HPV-6, HPV-11, HPV-16, HPV-18, HPV-31, HPV-33, HPV-45, HPV-52, and HPV-58.
- Provides protection against the most common types causing genital warts and the ones associated with most HPV-related cancers.
- Approved for both males and females.
- Protects against two high-risk HPV types: HPV-16 and HPV-18.
- Primarily focuses on preventing cervical cancer.
- Approved for females.
2. Targeted Diseases:
- HPV vaccines are primarily known for their role in preventing cervical cancer, which is closely associated with persistent infection with high-risk HPV types, especially HPV-16 and HPV-18.
- HPV vaccines have proven efficacy in preventing anal cancer, particularly in high-risk populations, such as men who have sex with men and individuals with compromised immune systems.
- Studies suggest that HPV vaccines can reduce the risk of oropharyngeal cancers, including cancers of the base of the tongue and tonsils, which are associated with high-risk HPV types.
- HPV vaccines provide protection against HPV types that commonly cause genital warts, reducing the incidence of this common sexually transmitted infection.
3. Vaccination Schedule:
- In many countries, a two-dose schedule is recommended for individuals starting the vaccination series before the age of 15. The doses are usually administered six to twelve months apart.
- For individuals starting the vaccination series at age 15 or older, a three-dose schedule is often recommended, with the second dose administered one to two months after the first, and the third dose administered six months after the first dose.
4. Effectiveness and Duration of Protection:
- Clinical trials have shown that HPV vaccines are highly effective in preventing infections with the targeted HPV types.
- Studies indicate that HPV vaccines provide long-term protection. However, ongoing research is conducted to determine the need for booster doses.
5. Safety and Side Effects:
- HPV vaccines are generally well-tolerated, with side effects being mild and temporary, such as pain at the injection site or mild flu-like symptoms.
Extensive Safety Monitoring:
- HPV vaccines undergo rigorous testing for safety during development, and their safety is continuously monitored through surveillance systems.
6. Prevention of HPV-Related Diseases:
- High vaccine coverage contributes to herd immunity, reducing the overall transmission of HPV and protecting individuals who may not be eligible for vaccination.
- HPV vaccines offer comprehensive protection against multiple HPV types, addressing various HPV-related diseases.
In summary, HPV vaccines play a crucial role in preventing HPV infections and related diseases, including cervical cancer, anal cancer, oropharyngeal cancer, and genital warts.
These vaccines are a vital component of public health strategies aimed at reducing the burden of HPV-associated diseases and improving overall population health.
How long does HPV vaccine protection last?
The duration of protection provided by the HPV vaccine is an area of ongoing research, as the vaccines have been in use for a relatively short period. However, current evidence suggests that the protection provided by the HPV vaccine is long-lasting, and booster doses may not be necessary for most individuals.
Key points regarding the duration of HPV vaccine protection include:
- Studies have demonstrated that HPV vaccines provide robust and long-lasting protection against the specific HPV types included in the vaccines.
- Long-term follow-up data from clinical trials show that vaccine-induced immunity remains high for at least 10 years.
Sustained Antibody Levels:
- Antibodies produced in response to the vaccine have been shown to persist at high levels over an extended period.
- High antibody levels are an indicator of ongoing protection against HPV infection.
Reduced Disease Rates:
- Countries with high HPV vaccination coverage have reported significant reductions in HPV-related diseases, including cervical precancers and genital warts, indicating the effectiveness and durability of the vaccines.
Potential Need for Boosters:
- While current evidence suggests long-lasting protection, ongoing research is being conducted to determine the need for booster doses and the timing of potential boosters.
- Some studies are exploring the impact of natural immune boosting through exposure to HPV over time.
Individual Immune Response:
- Individual immune responses can vary, and factors such as age at vaccination and the specific vaccine received may influence the duration of protection.
- Studies are monitoring breakthrough infections in vaccinated individuals to assess the duration of protection on an individual basis.
- Vaccine safety and effectiveness are continually monitored through surveillance systems to detect any changes in disease patterns or the emergence of new HPV variants.
It’s important to note that recommendations regarding booster doses or the need for additional vaccinations may evolve as more data becomes available. Currently, routine booster doses are not recommended for the general population.
Individuals are encouraged to follow the guidance of healthcare professionals and public health authorities regarding HPV vaccination and any potential updates to vaccination schedules or recommendations based on ongoing research and surveillance. Regular cervical cancer screening for females and other preventive measures remain important, even for those who have received the HPV vaccine, as the vaccine does not protect against all HPV types that can cause cancer.
Why do men still need to receive HPV vaccine? It’s effective in preventing anal and oropharyngeal cancers?
(source:internet, reference only)