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Are cervical cancer tumor markers reliable?
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Are cervical cancer tumor markers reliable? Is cancer with elevated tumor markers?
It is very important to use effective diagnostic methods to screen for cervical cancer, reduce the incidence, and prevent the occurrence and development of cervical cancer. Searching for serum tumor markers closely related to cervical cancer has a significant effect on the diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer.
So, what is a tumor marker, and does the increase in tumor markers necessarily lead to cancer? How much do you know about cervical cancer tumor markers? After reading this article, you may be able to find the answer.
1. What is a tumor marker?
Tumor markers refer to substances synthesized, secreted and released into body fluids and tissues by tumor cells. We can approximately understand it as the “fingerprint” or “criminal evidence” of the “suspect” malignant tumor.
2. Detect the role of tumor markers
By detecting tumor markers, it can assist doctors in diagnosing cervical cancer, monitoring the condition, and achieving the purpose of early detection of high-risk groups and detection of tumor treatment effects.
The detection of tumor markers is particularly important for doctors to understand the changes in the patient’s condition after treatment.
3. Common serum tumor markers used in the diagnosis of cervical cancer
Common serum tumor markers for cervical cancer diagnosis are mainly squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), sugar chain antigen 125 (CA125), sugar chain antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) ).
01 Squamous Cell Carcinoma Antigen (SCC-Ag)
SCC is the most frequently detected serological tumor marker during the diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer. , Serum SCC level exceeding 1.5ng/ml indicates abnormality and may become cancerous.
In addition, the level of SCC-Ag can indicate the therapeutic effect of cervical squamous cell carcinoma and whether it will recur.
02 Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA)
CEA has a high value in the diagnosis of cervical cancer, but CEA is not sensitive to the early diagnosis of tumors. Therefore, CEA is not suitable for early screening of cervical cancer.
03 Sugar chain antigen 125 (CA125)
Blood test. The serum CA125 level of patients with cervical cancer is significantly increased, and the more severe the patient’s condition, the higher the CA125 level. Serum CA125 is easy to detect, but it is not only increased when suffering from cervical cancer, and the misdiagnosis rate is high.
Therefore, it needs to be combined with other tests or more tumor markers to further confirm the diagnosis.
04 Sugar chain antigen 19-9 (CA19-9)
Generally speaking, the more severe cervical cancer patients are, the higher the clinical stage of the tumor, and the higher the level of CA19-9. Clinically, CA19-9 can be used as a marker for the progression and recurrence of cervical adenocarcinoma.
The combined detection of CA19-9 and carcinoembryonic antigen, SCC-Ag and CA125 is widely used in China.
Expert introduction: Wu Xin, Chief Physician of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University, Ph.D., backbone member of the Outpatient-Inpatient Integrated Outpatient Surgical Team of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University. Member of Cervical Cancer Group, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University.
Committed to the cutting-edge systemic treatment of cervical cancer, ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer and precancerous lesions combined with adjuvant therapy.
It has the four-level qualification for endoscopic surgery in gynecology (the highest level) and the international qualification for robotic surgery. Won the national championship of the 2nd GESEA Gynecological Endoscopic Surgery Competition.
4. Does elevated tumor markers necessarily lead to cancer?
First of all, tumor markers also exist in the body of normal people, as long as the detected value fluctuates within the normal range, it is normal. It can be said that everyone has “cancer cells” in their bodies.
Cancer cells are actually cells that proliferate indefinitely and become “bad”. While the human body grows more than 10 billion new cells, 1-20 “cancers” will also grow. cell”. Therefore, almost all tumor markers will not be “zero”, but will float within the normal range.
An increase in tumor markers within the normal range does not mean cancer. Under the action of the body’s immune system, a small amount of cancer cells will be eliminated in time to maintain the body’s health.
In addition, there are many factors that affect the results of tumor marker detection. The body is in pregnancy and menstruation, suffering from inflammation, liver cirrhosis, polyps, tuberculosis and other diseases, undergoing surgery or chemotherapy, bleeding and other factors may cause tumor markers Elevated, even the difference in detection time and blood collection methods can cause fluctuations in the level of tumor markers. Therefore, only elevated tumor markers cannot be linked to cancer.
Furthermore, tumor markers are only an auxiliary method for cervical cancer detection. Cervical liquid-based cytology (TCT) and HPV testing are effective initial screening methods for cervical cancer. Colposcopy or cervical biopsy pathology under direct vision is the gold standard for the final diagnosis.
The increase in tumor markers alone is not the final word, and the diagnosis is cervical cancer. Tumor markers are more suitable for the prevention and screening of high-risk groups and the monitoring of the condition of patients who have been diagnosed with cancer.
However, if the test finds a significant increase in the value of a tumor marker, after excluding inflammation, liver cirrhosis, and pregnancy, the patient needs to be screened for cancer to ensure early detection, early treatment, and prompt recovery of the patient .
5. What is the “false negative phenomenon” of tumor marker inspection
During the physical examination, some patients may be diagnosed with tumors even though all examinations are normal. This situation is mostly false negatives. The main factors causing this phenomenon are:
- 01 Because the number of tumor cells in the patient is reduced.
- 02 It was found that the surface of the patient’s tumor cells was closed, and the substances secreted by the tumor cells could not be discharged, and it was difficult to be detected.
- 03Because some of the antibodies and tumor markers produced in the patient form immune complexes.
- 04Because the tumor itself has poor blood circulation, tumor markers cannot be effectively secreted into the peripheral blood.
Therefore, the application of tumor marker detection in the diagnosis of cervical cancer should be comprehensively judged in close combination with clinical manifestations and imaging characteristics in practical applications. In particular, it is necessary to adhere to the combined detection of multiple tumor markers to increase the detection rate of cervical cancer and play a role in assisting diagnosis.
6. What to do when tumor markers are abnormally increased
In most cases, the physical examination report obtained needs to focus on analyzing the detection value of tumor markers and compare it with the normal parameters.
If the examination results show that the increase is very obvious, especially if the increase exceeds the normal value by twice or tens of Double, or dynamic observation of continuous increase, indicates that cancer cells are gathering and need to be reviewed again, and other tests such as colposcopy, CT, magnetic resonance, etc. should be performed under the doctor’s recommendation.
When the value is found to increase again, it indicates that there is a greater chance of cancer. If you find that the value does not increase significantly, it may be just a benign disease or organ inflammation.
7. Five groups of people recommended for tumor marker screening:
Healthy people over 40 years old, patients with cancer signs, workers in mines with more serious pollution, people who have been in contact with carcinogens for a long time, people in high-incidence areas of cancer, or people with a family history of cancer.
Are cervical cancer tumor markers reliable?
(source:internet, reference only)