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The mechanism of stem cell therapy treating Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
The mechanism of stem cell therapy treating Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). At present, it is generally believed that the pathogenesis of ALS is closely related to the abnormality of glial cells.
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neuron disease, is a disease that manifests as gradual muscle weakness and atrophy. It is a terminal illness recognized in the world. In recent years, scientists have continued to explore the treatment of ALS, and the emergence of stem cell therapy has provided new ideas for ALS treatment, and has gradually moved from experiment to clinic.
Stem cell therapy ALS
At present, it is generally believed that the onset of ALS is closely related to the abnormality of glial cells. Glial cells can deliver nutrients to the neural cell network. Once the glial cells are abnormal, it will cause a series of abnormalities in the nervous system and ultimately affect the patient’s brain function. , So that the patient gradually loses the ability to exercise and causes paralysis
Clinical trials have proven that stem cells have a good effect in the treatment of ALS. The mechanism of multidirectional differentiation of stem cells, nutrient factor delivery, immune regulation, homing, and exosomal secretion help improve the relevant indicators of ALS patients and promote the patient’s condition Get better.
The mechanism of action of stem cell therapy on ALS
① Cell differentiation: After the stem cells are transported to the central nervous system, their differentiation can express neuron or glial markers, repair damaged motor neurons, and help the body’s nerve function recovery.
②Nutrition factor delivery: Stem cells can improve the delivery efficiency of nutrient factors. Scholar Kumar A’s research shows that stem cells can secrete 6 different neurotrophic factors, which can repair the substantia nigra striatum system and damaged tissues through the delivery of nutrient factors.
③Immune regulation: Stem cells in the immune system can reduce the production of antibodies by B cells, inhibit the activation of DC and T cells, and inhibit cytokines to regulate immunity to reduce inflammation. Through the culture test of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and stem cells of patients with ALS, it was found that the levels of anti-inflammatory factors such as interferon-gamma, interleukin-4, and interleukin-10 increased after culture.
④Homing: stem cells can use their own homing characteristics to find their own “home”, provide a source of survival and homing to the damaged area, differentiate into the expected cell type, improve the microenvironment in the brain, and rebuild the neural functional area and conduction pathways .
⑤Exosome secretion: Stem cells have a high ability to secrete exosomes, and they have strong anti-neuro-inflammation ability. They can help reduce inflammation and repair nerve function during the intervention of ALS.
Clinical research of stem cell therapy on ALS:
According to the study by Petrou P et al. on the enhancement of neurotrophic factor secretion by stem cells, the study selected 14 patients with ALS who received intramuscular combined with intrathecal stem cell infusion for intervention, and compared the running-in period of 3 months before transplantation and after transplantation. The 6-month follow-up results showed that the functional score and lung capacity decline of ALS patients after transplantation were significantly reduced.
Stem cell therapy has good application value in the treatment of ALS. It can help improve the clinical symptoms of patients through cell differentiation, nutrient factor delivery, immune regulation and other mechanisms, and delay and inhibit the progression of the patient’s condition.
(source:internet, reference only)