April 15, 2024

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The mechanism and clinical research of stem cell treatment of nephropathy

The mechanism and clinical research of stem cell treatment of nephropathy

The mechanism and clinical research of stem cell treatment of nephropathy.   Stem cell treatment of kidney disease has great potential to protect the kidney and improve renal function. With the further in-depth research, stem cell therapy will provide more clinical options for patients with kidney disease.

Kidney disease includes various diseases of the kidney, with high incidence and high fatality rate. At present, renal replacement therapy is mainly adopted, namely kidney transplantation and maintenance dialysis. These two methods have certain limitations.

In recent years, with the rise and rapid development of stem cell therapy technology, it has been discovered that stem cells can protect the kidneys through direct differentiation and paracrine effects, providing a new treatment plan for the treatment of nephropathy.

The mechanism and clinical research of stem cell treatment of nephropathy

Compared with traditional treatment methods, stem cells have unique advantages in the treatment of nephropathy: on the one hand, they have a wide range of sources, and the treatment of stem cells from different sources are similar; on the other hand, stem cells implanted in the human body (almost) have no immune rejection reaction, and no need for transplantation. It is convenient for clinical application.

The specific mechanism of stem cell treatment of kidney disease

1. Differentiation function

Stem cells in the body can be directed to “homing” to damaged kidney tissues and chronic inflammation sites, and produce a series of transforming growth factors through secretion to promote the differentiation of endogenous stem cells into kidney cells, and can also directly differentiate into renal parenchymal cells.

2. Immune regulation

Stem cells have anti-inflammatory effects, reducing the necrosis of renal tubular epithelial cells and the degree of infiltration of interstitial inflammatory cells through paracrine, reducing the expression of inflammatory factors and chemokines.

3. Tissue repair

Stem cells exert anti-oxidative stress and anti-fibrosis effects to reduce kidney tissue damage, and secrete a series of biologically active molecules to repair damaged parts, improve kidney oxygen supply capacity, and improve kidney function.

Stem cell treatment of animal research shows initial results

Zhao et al. injected stem cells into rats with chronic kidney disease and found that the stem cells significantly improved the biochemical indicators and renal function of the rats; Dong et al. injected stem cells into adriamycin chronic kidney disease rats and found that nephrin in the rat kidney tissue mRNA expression increased significantly, while urine protein decreased, blood albumin increased, and blood cholesterol decreased.

For another example, Zhou et al. used stem cells to treat rats with diabetic nephropathy. After transplantation, they found that blood glucose, total urine protein, and kidney hypertrophy index were lower than those in the control group. Wang et al. injected stem cells into lupus nephritis mice. After transplantation, hematuria, proteinuria, blood creatinine, and urea nitrogen were all reduced. These animal studies preliminarily show that stem cells can improve kidney function, reduce histological damage, and reduce renal fibrosis.

Stem cell treatment clinical trials improve kidney function

Cantaluppi et al. summarized the Phase I/II clinical trials of Clinical Trials.gov stem cell treatment of various kidney diseases. Most of the research purposes are to determine the safety and effectiveness of stem cell therapy. Packham DK et al. carried out a phase I clinical trial involving 30 patients with diabetic nephropathy, divided into 3 groups: N=10 lower stem cell dose (1.5×106 cells/KG), N=10 higher stem cell dose ( 3.0×106 cells/KG), N=10 placebo.

The stem cell group received a single intravenous injection and was followed up for 60 weeks. The results showed that stem cell infusion is safe and well tolerated. The kidney indicators of patients receiving stem cell therapy have improved. The glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in the lower stem cell dose group has a more significant and stable relative improvement effect.

In conclusion, stem cell therapy has great potential in treating kidney disease, protecting the kidney and improving renal function. As research further develops, stem cell therapy will provide more clinical options for patients with kidney disease.

(source:internet, reference only)

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