June 27, 2022

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American Cancer Association released: Anti-cancer strategy in 2030

American Cancer Association released: Anti-cancer strategy in 2030

American Cancer Association released: Anti-cancer strategy in 2030.  The American Cancer Society (ACS) has released the first-level tumor fight plan for the next 10 years, called the “2030 Blueprint for Cancer Prevention and Mortality Reduction”, and related articles are published in the world’s highest impact factor journal CA!

American Cancer Association released: Anti-cancer strategy in 2030. 

In 80 years, the cancer death rate dropped by 26%!

The article analyzed in detail the changes and causes of cancer mortality in the United States during the 80 years from 1930 to 2010, and planned the direction for future work to reduce cancer mortality.

American Cancer Association released: Anti-cancer strategy in 2030. 

The picture above shows the cancer death rates for men and women in the United States from 1930 to 2015. It can be seen that the year with the highest cancer death rate in the United States was in 1991. The total death rate in that year was 215.1/100,000. By 2015, the total cancer death rate in the United States had dropped to 158.7/100,000. 26%!

American Cancer Association released: Anti-cancer strategy in 2030. 

The country’s breast cancer mortality rate declined from 1988-90 to 2013-15. Data source: National Center for Health Statistics.

American Cancer Association released: Anti-cancer strategy in 2030. 

The country’s decline in colorectal cancer mortality from 1980-82 to 2013-15. Data source: National Center for Health Statistics.

American Cancer Society: Three major factors for mortality reduction!

  • Cancer is prevention first. Smoking or not has greatly affected a variety of cancers, including lung cancer. Therefore, reducing cancer mortality depends on smoking cessation.
  • The second is screening. The emergence of screening has greatly affected the prognosis of colon cancer and cervical cancer. Although breast cancer and prostate cancer screening are still controversial to varying degrees, they still contribute.
  • The improvement of surgical procedures and the reduction of complications have led to a reduction in operative mortality. Advances in radiotherapy methods have reduced patient mortality. At the same time, advances in systemic treatment for tumors of the blood system and lymphatic system have also reduced the mortality rate.

Top 10 anti-cancer strategies in the next ten years!

1. Keep away from 11 pathogens

Some viral infections (such as HPV, HIV and hepatitis B virus) also increase the risk of cancer.

At present, a total of 11 pathogens have been identified as carcinogenic by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), including:

  • 1 kind of bacteria: Helicobacter pylori;
  • 7 kinds of viruses: hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human papilloma virus (HPV), Epstein-Barr virus, human immunodeficiency virus, etc.
  • Three kinds of parasites: Thai liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis (liver fluke), Schistosoma haematobium.

For common infections in general life, we recommend:

▍① Cervical cancer-HPV human papilloma virus

Routes: sexual transmission, close contact, indirect contact (clothes, daily necessities, utensils, etc. of the infected person), iatrogenic infection, mother-to-child transmission.

Prevention: Get HPV vaccine, pay attention to personal hygiene, and pay attention to sexual hygiene. Women who have had sex should be screened once a year.

Reminder: There are no obvious symptoms in the early stage of HPV infection. After cervical lesions, there may be sexual contact bleeding, increased leucorrhea and peculiar smell, prolonged menstrual period, increased menstrual volume, etc. Seek medical attention in time.

▍② Gastric cancer-Helicobacter pylori

Ways: oral saliva, fecal handling, food contact mouth

Prevention: Wash your hands before meals, try not to feed food, especially do not feed young children orally. Can be divided into meals or serving chopsticks, and the tableware is often disinfected.

Reminder: If patients have symptoms such as bad breath, pantothenic acid, stomachache, etc., they should be screened for gastroscopy and HP infection.

▍③ Liver cancer-hepatitis B and C viruses, liver fluke

Ways: blood transmission, mother-to-child transmission, sexual transmission, raw freshwater fish and shrimp, etc.

Prevention: Vaccination against hepatitis B and C vaccine; go to regular medical institutions when donating blood or blood transfusion; do a premarital and pregnancy checkup; eat less raw freshwater fish and shrimp.

Reminder: Patients with chronic hepatitis B and C may have symptoms such as fatigue, loss of appetite, and indigestion, which must not be underestimated.

▍④ Nasopharyngeal carcinoma-Epstein-Barr virus

Way: Saliva transmission

Prevention: Inoculate EB vaccine, pay attention to avoid mouth-to-mouth transmission and sneeze droplet transmission.

2.  Sunscreen, reduce the risk of skin cancer

Sun exposure is the biggest risk factor for skin cancer. Almost 86% of melanoma skin cancers and 90% of non-melanoma skin cancers (including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma) are related to solar ultraviolet radiation. The most effective way to limit your risk of skin cancer is to limit your sun exposure.

Sun exposure is a good way to supplement vitamin D, but we refuse to expose it!

Suggestions:

▍① Avoid direct sunlight at noon;

▍② Use sunscreen appropriately;

▍③ Wear a wide-brimmed sun hat and sunglasses;

▍④ Wear sun protection clothing;

3. reduce unnecessary medical radiation

IARC believes that all ionizing radiation is carcinogenic. Data from 2006 show that 48% of ionizing radiation comes from medical equipment (such as CT), including exposure during diagnosis and treatment.

Medical ionizing radiation is associated with a variety of cancers, and CT has the greatest risk. After a 40-year-old man and woman undergo a single CT coronary angiography, their lifetime cancer risk is approximately 1/600 and 1/270, respectively, but the risk of head CT is much smaller (1/11080 and 1/11080, respectively). 1/8100).

However, elderly people are at a low risk when undergoing these tests.

4. Reduce the emission of indoor building materials

Radon pollution, formaldehyde pollution, benzene pollution, etc. will all have an impact on health. Among them, radon pollution has been recognized by the World Health Organization as the second most common lung cancer substance after tobacco. According to estimates by the National Research Council of the United States, 3%-4% of lung cancer deaths in the United States can be prevented by reducing indoor radon exposure.

▍① Radon: A radioactive gas widely present in nature. Building materials are the most important source of indoor radon, such as slag bricks and natural stones used in decoration, as well as ceramic products such as tiles and sanitary ware.

▍② Formaldehyde: Mainly comes from wood-based panels used in decoration and furniture, such as composite flooring, large core boards, density boards, and white latex and fabric products used in decoration.

▍③ Benzene: mainly comes from solvent-based wood paint, paint, solvent-based adhesives and detergents.

Suggestions:

Before you renovate your new home, it is recommended to ask a professional testing agency to conduct an indoor environment test. According to the test results, you can decide whether you can move in. If the pollution is not serious, it is best to ventilate for about 6 months before moving in. More ventilation in the home can reduce the concentration of indoor radon and formaldehyde.

The World Health Organization recommends that the radon concentration in the living room should be <2.7pCi/L. The US Environmental Protection Agency recommends that indoor radon concentration ≥ 4.0 pCi/L exceeds the standard.

5.  Quitting smoking is the top priority!

Tobacco control is the “top priority” for cancer prevention! Since 1991, the cancer death rate in the United States has decreased by 26%, and more than half of this has been attributed to the decline in smoking rates.

Suggestions:

▍① Quitting smoking is beneficial to people of any age.

▍② Smoking has shortened life expectancy by more than ten years.

▍③ If you quit smoking before the age of 40, you can regain 9 years of life.

6.  Limit alcohol, any alcohol consumption is harmful

In 1987, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified alcohol as a carcinogen for the first time. Excessive drinking can cause adverse effects in many aspects of the body, which are related to at least 7 types of cancer (British Science Monthly “Addiction”).

The American Cancer Society recommends that women should not drink more than 1 serving per day, and men should not drink more than 2 servings per day. The “Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents” (2016) recommends that men drink no more than 25 grams of alcohol a day and women no more than 15 grams, otherwise it would be excessive drinking.

What is the concept of 25 grams of alcohol? Approximately, remember:

▍Liquor: no more than 1 tael each time

▍Beer: no more than one bottle at a time

▍Red wine: limited to one red wine glass at a time

Evidence shows that even small amounts of alcohol can increase the risk of certain cancers, including breast cancer. Therefore, in order to prevent cancer, drinking alcohol is not recommended.

7.  control weight

Obesity not only increases the risk of heart disease, diabetes, bone and joint diseases, but also increases the risk of cancer. More than 20 different types of cancer are related to obesity, the most notable of which are rectal cancer, endometrial cancer and esophageal adenocarcinoma.

8.  healthy eating

Bacon, ham, sausages, and hot dogs are all listed as the first group of carcinogens by the World Health Organization. Eating processed meat increases the risk of colorectal cancer by 18%. Red meat can also shorten a person’s lifespan and increase the risk of colon cancer, especially when the meat is grilled or grilled, or even slightly burned. Although the carcinogenic risk of red meat is far less than that of smoking, reducing your intake of red meat and restricting your consumption of processed meat will only reduce your risk of cancer.

Eating a variety of foods every day-fruits, vegetables, grains, protein and dairy products-eat a lot of food every day. It also means observing your fat, fat, sodium and sugar intake. The more you can avoid getting fat, the better. Throughout your life, maintaining your healthy height and weight can reduce your risk of heart disease, diabetes and cancer. Start eating healthy today!

9.  exercise, exercise, exercise

Physical exercise not only helps to lose weight or keep in shape, but it also has a preventive effect on cancer. Exercise seems to lower hormone levels, improve our immune system function, lower insulin and insulin-like growth factors, and reduce body fat.

Studies have shown that people who take at least 30-60 minutes of moderate to high-intensity physical exercise a day have a lower risk of cancer, especially breast and colon cancer. In addition, the incidence of several other cancers has also declined, including prostate cancer, lung cancer and endometrial cancer.

In order to prevent cancer, the American Sports Guidelines recommend:

▌Adults should do at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (such as brisk walking) every week;

▌Or 75 minutes of high-intensity exercise (such as jogging);

▌Or a combination of two equal exercises.

10. get cancer screening

For most cancers, if they can be detected and treated early, survival will be greater. The following cancer screenings should be performed regularly:

Breast cancer screening, cervical cancer screening, colorectal cancer screening, hepatitis C virus screening, HIV screening, lung cancer screening, obesity, etc.

(source:internet, reference only)


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