Adverse Event (AEFI) may happen after vaccination
Adverse Event (AEFI) may happen after vaccination. Vaccination can stimulate the body to produce antibodies to combat the invasion of a certain disease on the human body. Vaccines are not produced by our body. Therefore, they are foreign bodies to the human body.
Due to the characteristics of the vaccine itself and individual differences in the human body, very few recipients may have some unfavorable reactions to the body, called “Adverse Event Following Immunization” (AEFI), or suspected vaccination Abnormal reaction.
Today, the editor is leading parents to understand these side effects comprehensively and scientifically, to treat them in a correct way, reduce panic, and refuse “vaccine hesitation”, thereby protecting our babies healthy and happily growing up.
01 What causes the occurrence of AEFI in our body?
(1) Factors of the vaccine itself
The inherent biological characteristics of vaccines: In order to control pollution, antibiotics such as neomycin and penicillin are used; some additives are added, such as adjuvants, preservatives, stabilizers, etc. These are foreign bodies to individuals, and symptoms such as fever, redness and swelling can occur during our body’s struggle with these foreign bodies.
(2) Factors in the use of vaccines
The vaccination doctor’s operation in the implementation of vaccination is not standardized enough, the contraindications are not strictly controlled, and the vaccine storage and use are improper, all of which can increase the risk of side effects.
(3) Individual factors of vaccination
The child’s poor health, previous allergies, immune insufficiency, and mental stress will all have a certain impact on vaccination.
(4) Other factors
Vaccination in hot weather, vigorous exercise after vaccination, drinking, and contamination of the vaccination site can easily aggravate side effects after vaccination.
02 How do we identify which type of AEFI is?
According to different causes, AEFI is often divided into the following 5 types:
(1) Adverse reactions:
After qualified vaccines are inoculated according to the standard, harmful reactions that are not related to the purpose of vaccination or accidents occur, including general reactions (mild) and abnormal reactions (severe).
A. General reaction:
It occurs after vaccination and is caused by the inherent characteristics of the vaccine. It will only cause a transient physiological dysfunction reaction to the body, and will not cause damage to tissues and organs. Including local reactions and systemic reactions. Among them, local reactions mainly include local redness and induration.
For example, 10-14 days after vaccination with BCG, nodular swelling may appear locally, pustules or ulcers may appear in 4-6 weeks, and scars may be healed in 8-12 weeks. These are normal reactions after vaccination. Keep the vaccination site clean and dry, no need Special treatment. The common systemic reactions include fever, headache, general malaise, fatigue, loss of appetite, fatigue and other syndromes. Strengthen observation, drink plenty of water and rest. Generally, no special treatment is needed, and it will subside within 1-2 days.
B. Abnormal reaction:
It is an adverse drug reaction in which a qualified vaccine causes damage to the tissues, organs, and functions of the recipient during or after the implementation of the standardized vaccination, and the relevant parties are not at fault.
According to clinical damage, there are three major categories including allergic reaction, nervous system reaction and other clinical damage.
Severe abnormal reactions include anaphylactic shock, allergic laryngeal edema, allergic purpura, and local allergic necrosis. This phenomenon is rare, and is related to the individual’s immune status, physical fitness, etc. In such a situation, you should go to the hospital for treatment in time.
(1) Vaccine quality accident: due to substandard vaccine quality, the tissues, organs and functions of the recipient are damaged after vaccination.
(2) Preventive vaccination accidents: due to violations of vaccination work norms, immunization procedures, guidelines for the use of vaccines, and vaccination plans during the implementation of vaccination, the tissues, organs, and functions of the recipient are damaged.
(3) Coincident disease: The recipient is in the incubation period or prodromal period of a certain disease at the time of vaccination, and it happens by accident after vaccination, which is common in vaccination clinics.
For example, our jurisdiction recently reported that an 8-month-old child was diagnosed with thrombocytopenic purpura 9 days after being vaccinated against leprosy, which is suspected to be related to the vaccine. The investigation found that the child had acute infantile eruption 18 days before the onset of illness, which had nothing to do with vaccination and was a coincidence.
(4) Psychological reactions: Individual or group reactions due to psychological factors of the recipient during the implementation of vaccination or after the implementation of vaccination.
03 How can we prevent these AEFIs from happening?
(1) Parents should not panic, learn more, and take a correct view
It is a normal phenomenon to have some side effects after vaccination. As parents, we should have a certain psychological prediction for side effects of the vaccine to avoid excessive panic. We should also strengthen our study on weekdays, reserve a certain amount of vaccine knowledge, and master some emergency measures For example, let the child rest properly after vaccination, drink plenty of water, keep warm to prevent secondary infections, if the vaccination site is red and swollen, take boil compress methods, etc.; at the same time, maintain a correct attitude and an objective view. Severe abnormal reactions should go to the hospital for treatment and treatment in time.
(2) Doctors have a sense of responsibility, train more soldiers, and standardize vaccination
During the implementation of vaccination work, doctors should strengthen their sense of responsibility, disinfect the vaccination site regularly, open windows frequently for ventilation; regularly check the types and expiration dates of vaccines and emergency medicines, etc.; strict “three checks, seven to one verification” during vaccination System, standardize the implementation of vaccination services; vaccination doctors improve their learning awareness, master operation skills, and improve service quality.
(3) All sectors of society work together to create high-quality vaccination services
The government should promote the construction of intelligent vaccination clinics to create a scientific, standardized, safe, orderly and warm vaccination environment; strengthen media communication, transmit accurate vaccine information, and reduce social misunderstandings about vaccines; improve supervision and monitoring capabilities to ensure adequate Give full play to the role of regulatory agencies in vaccine safety management.
I hope that through today’s study, parents can have a correct understanding of AEFI. What needs to be emphasized is that the risk of side effects after vaccination is far less than the risk of spreading infectious diseases if vaccination is not carried out, and the benefits of vaccines against diseases Far greater than the risk, there will be more injuries and deaths without a vaccine. Therefore, we cannot refuse vaccination because of some side effects.