June 22, 2024

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High-grade glioma is the brain cancer and how to treat it?

High-grade glioma is the brain cancer and how to treat it?  How about the survival rate?


High-grade glioma is the brain cancer and how to treat it?  Causes of high-grade gliomas?

High-grade gliomas are a type of glioma, which are cells found in the brain and spinal cord. They are called “high grade” because tumors are growing rapidly and will spread rapidly in the brain tissue, which makes them difficult to treat. High-grade gliomas can occur in children of all ages, from infants to adults.

Is high-grade glioma a brain cancer? Generally, high-grade gliomas are rare and have malignant characteristics. Only 360 to 400 new cases occur in North America each year. They happen equally in boys and girls. High-grade gliomas are classified according to their location and how they appear when examined under a microscope. Classification of tumors helps determine how the disease progresses and helps determine the best treatment.


Causes of high-grade glioma

Sometimes, high-dose radiation therapy can cause high-grade gliomas, but the cause of most high-grade gliomas in children is unclear. Although doctors continue to conduct research to understand the causes of tumors, so far, there are no reliable findings. Genetic causes are rare, and tumors are believed to be irrelevant to anything in the environment.


High-grade glioma symptoms

The symptoms of a brain tumor usually depend on its location. One of the common symptoms of high-grade glioma is headaches, especially headaches associated with vomiting in children who wake up in the morning. High-grade gliomas can also cause seizures or cause young children to miss developmental milestones. Sometimes, tumors can cause vision, hearing, or speech problems, or balance problems. These symptoms may also be related to other health conditions, so if your child shows any of these symptoms, it is important to have a thorough medical examination.


How is high-grade glioma diagnosed?

The first step in diagnosing brain tumors is usually to take pictures of the brain and/or spine using MRI or CT scans. These tests can help indicate the presence of a tumor. However, in order to make a clear diagnosis of high-grade glioma, a biopsy is required. In the biopsy, the doctor examines a small part of the tumor tissue. This helps to identify specific tumor types and helps detect the presence of certain biological “markers” in the tumor. These markers can be used to help determine treatments.


How to treat high-grade glioma?

The main treatment for high-grade glioma is surgical removal of the tumor. Surgery is only performed when it is safe to perform surgery without causing additional damage to the brain. Certain types of tumors, such as diffuse pontine glioma, cannot be removed because they are located in fragile and critical areas of the brain.

In addition to surgery, most children will also receive radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy based on their age and tumor type. When tumors continue to grow even after chemotherapy and radiotherapy, special experimental treatments can be considered.


What is the prognosis of high-grade glioma?

Most malignant brain tumors (WHO Grad 3 and Grad 4) grow rapidly and are life-threatening.

High-grade brain tumors usually recur after treatment, such as the highest incidence of malignant gliomas (glioblastoma GBM , Diffuse endogenous brainstem glioma DIPG, etc.), the average survival period of patients is less than 12 months. Of course, with the current comprehensive treatment of malignant brain tumors such as total surgical resection and postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy, coupled with the advent of diversified new therapies such as electric field therapy and immunotherapy, the survival period of malignant brain tumors is greatly extended. It has passed 5 years, 10 years, or even longer. Although the prognosis of high-grade glioma is generally poor, there are many cases of long-term survival after treatment for high-grade glioma.


(source:internet, reference only)

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