Stem Cell: Powerful Proliferation and Differentiation Ability
Stem Cell: Powerful Proliferation and Differentiation Ability. In recent years, with the rapid development of stem cell technology, its powerful curative effect has been recognized by more and more people. Stem cells have become a new hope to change future medicine. In particular, stem cells can provide effective treatment for intractable diseases that cannot be treated by traditional medicine. Treatment strategy.
This is mainly due to the strong proliferation and differentiation ability of stem cells.
Among them, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are the most widely used type. As human origin cells, MSC can differentiate into a variety of human cells, including adipocytes, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, muscle cells, tendon cells, etc. .
Of course, through the efforts of scientists, mesenchymal stem cells can also be induced to differentiate into hepatocytes, pancreatic β cells, and nerve cells. Therefore, stem cells have important medical value for immunosuppression, tissue repair and organ regeneration.
Usually, cell culture is often in a dark incubator, and we generally cannot observe the detailed dynamic proliferation of stem cells. Now, scientists have placed mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) under a microscope with video recording function, and dynamically recorded the magical proliferation behavior of MSC.
Below, let us see its mysterious style.
Although it is a single MSC, it can also undergo mitosis. MSC first shrinks and rounds the cell body, as if it is gradually condensing into a force, ready to “gather up” at any time.
△ Mesenchymal stem cells that gradually shrink into spheres
Immediately afterwards, the cells began to enter the most vigorous stage of reproduction, cell division increased, and the exponential growth mode began.
Proliferation to a certain extent, the number of cells is almost saturated, and after the chromosome duplication is completed, a clone split will occur, which divides into two, realizing the proliferation of cells.
△ The cell divides into two and begins to replicate
Of course, the cell proliferation process under the lens is pressed by the fast forward button. Usually, the time required for a low-generation cell to divide is about 22 hours, which is really a long division process.
In the primary culture, MSCs often proliferate clonally, that is, first form a small cell cluster, and then gradually proliferate around this cell cluster, and swim outward while proliferating, slowly occupying an area.
△ In primary cell culture, the cells proliferate and swim outwards
△ Soon, cells occupied a large area
In the normal cell culture process, the passaged MSCs are seeded in flat culture flasks and distributed in different positions.
△ Mesenchymal stem cells scattered in a culture flask
However, MSC does not proliferate into two parts at one location, but constantly migrates, and the cells in other locations collide and communicate with each other, fission and proliferation at the same time during this migration process.
△ The proliferation team that continues to split and grow while wandering
The strong division and proliferation ability of mesenchymal stem cells provide them with tissue repair and organ regeneration functions.
By differentiation into mature tissues and organ cells, they can be used to replace damaged cells; by fusion with cells, injured cells can be rescued; at the same time, mesenchymal stem cells can also secrete cytokines to promote the proliferation of stem progenitor cells in tissues and organs, and secrete extracellular Exosomes or tiny vesicles enter the injured cell through membrane fusion, and can even deliver mitochondria and other substances to the injured cell.
The proliferation and division of stem cells is the basic mechanism for the treatment of diseases. Nowadays, stem cells have been used in the treatment of many diseases, and the treatment strategies of more difficult diseases are being changed. We will make efforts to save more patients. We also look forward to stem cells. Therapies can be recognized by more and more people and benefit human health.