- New DNA Repair Approach Successfully Repairs Pathogenic Gene Mutations in Patients’ Kidney Cells
- Why does moderate starvation during sickness can enhance the activity of immune cells?
- WHO experts agree on new name for monkeypox virus variant
- How terrible is the newly discovered “Langya virus” in China?
- ‘Most Expensive Drug’ Zolgensma facing new challenge after Two Children Died
- Hair loss and sexual dysfunction added to list of symptoms of long-COVID along with fatigue and brain fog
Regenerative medicine of adipose tissue stem cells
Regenerative medicine of adipose tissue stem cells. Regenerative medicine refers to medical treatments that restore the function of tissues and organs with stem cells. Stem cells can be divided into pluripotent stem cells and adult stem cells. The former is represented by ips cells and the latter is represented by mesenchymal stem cells (MSC).
The so-called regenerative medicine refers to the medical treatment of tissues and organs’ defects and dysfunctions, which are restored by stem cells. Stem cells can be divided into pluripotent stem cells and adult stem cells. The former is represented by ips cells and the latter is represented by mesenchymal stem cells (MSC).
Speaking of regenerative medicine, one would think of the method of cultivating organs from ips cells and transplanting them. However, this method will take a long time to achieve actual clinical application. Cell therapy in which stem cells are directly fed back into the body is a regenerative medicine that has been actually clinically applied. In fact, clinical treatments using mesenchymal stem cells to promote organ regeneration have already begun.
The following is a detailed explanation of the meaning and difference between ips cells and mesenchymal stem cells in regenerative medicine.
1. ips cells are stem cells born in Japan
ips cells are famous in regenerative medicine. Also, in 2012, Professor Shinya Yamanaka of Kyoto University won the Nobel Prize for his ips cells.
2. ips cells have “multiple differentiation ability”
Among stem cells, there are stem cells (precursor cells) that have determined which cell to differentiate into and ips cells that can differentiate into all cells.
Specifically, blood precursor cells are differentiated into cells that make up blood, and nerve precursor cells are differentiated into cells that make up nerves. In this way, cells that can only differentiate into a certain system are precursor cells. On the other hand, ips cells can differentiate into all the cells that make up the human body such as the heart, brain, and skin. This is why ips cells are called pluripotent stem cells.
3. The advantages of ips cells
The epoch-making significance of ips cells is that they can be generated from their own skin, blood, gums, teeth, etc.
Before the discovery of ips cells, ES cells were widely known as pluripotent stem cells. However, because the production of this cell requires destruction of the fertilized egg that can differentiate into a baby, there are ethical issues.
ips cells are manufactured by introducing four types of genes called “Yamaka four factors” into somatic cells, so there are no ethical issues like ES cells. Accordingly, the possibility of regenerative medicine is also greatly expanded.
4. Problems with ips cells
Although ips cells can easily produce pluripotent stem cells without ethical issues, there are risks. If the organs produced by ips cells contain undifferentiated ips cells, the undifferentiated ips cells will become cancerous. If the organ transplanted for treatment produces tumors due to ips cells, the effectiveness of the treatment will also decrease. Moreover, it takes more than one year to make ips cells, and the cost is also high, which is also a problem currently faced.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC)
1. Mesenchymal stem cells are a kind of stem cells contained in the body itself
Mesenchymal stem cells are a type of stem cells that exist in the human body and are also called MSCs.
Mesenchymal stem cells exist throughout the body such as bone marrow, fat, and skin. In addition, the nature of mesenchymal stem cells differs slightly depending on where they exist.
Originally, mesenchymal stem cells are defined as cells that can differentiate into fat, bone, and cartilage, but in fact, mesenchymal stem cells can also differentiate into other tissue cells, such as liver cells and nerve cells.
2. The difference between ips cells and MSC (mesenchymal stem cells)
The difference between MSC and ips cells is that MSC has immune regulation functions. If an organ made from human ips cells other than itself is transplanted, rejection will occur. On the other hand, MSC has immunomodulatory ability, so even if transplanted, there will be no rejection.
3. MSC (Mesenchymal Stem Cell) treatment has begun clinical application
Quoted from the homepage of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare “Decision of the Central Social Insurance and Medical Council General Meeting (313th)”
Compared with the ips cell therapy that is still under study, the treatment using mesenchymal stem cells has been practical, so based on this point, the treatment using mesenchymal stem cells is one step ahead. In fact, the allogeneic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell drug Temcell, which is used to treat graft-versus-host disease after bone marrow transplantation, is also included in the scope of Japanese medical insurance. The most recent example is the use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Stomick’s note) to treat spinal cord injury in clinical use in December 2018. Specifically, mesenchymal stem cells from the patient’s autologous bone marrow fluid were collected and cultured. Reinfused into the body to promote spinal cord nerve regeneration.
4. Types of MSC (Mesenchymal Stem Cell)
Most of the mesenchymal stem cells used for treatment are derived from bone marrow extracted from bone marrow fluid. This is because the earliest mesenchymal stem cells are derived from bone marrow. With the deepening of research, it was discovered that they can be derived from various organs. Collect mesenchymal stem cells. Moreover, the researchers also discovered that the nature of mesenchymal stem cells is different due to different organs.
Recently, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells have attracted much attention. Compared with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells have better organ repair and immune adjustment functions.
5. MSC derived from fat (mesenchymal stem cells)
Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells refer to mesenchymal stem cells collected from adipose tissue. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from fat have more advantages than mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow.
1). High content
Mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow account for only 0.01% of the cells in bone marrow, and the number of fat-derived mesenchymal stem cells contained in adipose tissue is 500 times that of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. The amount of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow is limited, while the amount of mesenchymal stem cells derived from fat can be collected from adipose tissue throughout the body.
2). A large amount of various factors are generated
Mesenchymal stem cells derived from fat produce more factors than mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow, such as growth factors such as HGF (hepatocyte growth factor) and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) that play a role in organ repair (Regeneration promotion factor).
3). Strong immunosuppressive function
Compared with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, fat-derived mesenchymal stem cells have a higher immunosuppressive ability (3). Animal experiments have shown that mesenchymal stem cells derived from fat can greatly improve nephritis (4).
4). Promote the proliferation of MSC (mesenchymal stem cells) of the elderly
With the increase of age, the number of mesenchymal stem cells also decreases. The increase in age affects it not only in numbers, but reports have shown that the proliferation rate of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow also decreases with age. In contrast, fat-derived mesenchymal stem cells can also be collected in the adipose tissue of the elderly and can proliferate without any problems.
5). Less physical burden on patients during collection
General anesthesia is used to collect mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow, so the collection will put a great burden on the patient. In contrast, because adipose tissue is close to the surface of the body, collecting fat-derived mesenchymal stem cells will place less burden on patients.
Low serum culture method
Fat-derived mesenchymal stem cells are more functional than bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. If the low-serum culture method is used, fat-derived stem cells with higher regeneration promotion and immunosuppressive functions can be produced. Mesenchymal stem cells.
Using the low-serum culture method, the number of mesenchymal stem cells generated from 1g of adipose tissue in 4 weeks is enough for clinical use for 10 times (conventional dosage).
For difficult-to-treat glomerulonephritis and several other diseases, compared with mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells produced by conventional methods, mesenchymal stem cells produced using a low-serum culture method Line stem cells (LASC) have better therapeutic effects.
Based on the flexible use of the characteristics of this cell, it is now being promoted for clinical applications.
Compared with the treatment using IPS cells, the treatment using mesenchymal stem cells is one step ahead in clinical use. The treatment using mesenchymal stem cells has been applied to diseases of organ disorders and refractory inflammatory diseases that cannot be controlled by existing immunosuppressive drugs. This treatment method utilizes the characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells in internal organ regeneration and immune control.
MSC (Mesenchymal Stem Cell) has been clinically used in certain diseases, and its therapeutic effects in various diseases are also highly anticipated.
Therefore, the mesenchymal stem cell LASC produced by the low-serum culture method has stronger functions and is a cell with unlimited possibilities for future regenerative medicine.
(sourceinternet, reference only)