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Research progress on the biological characteristics of stem cells and their treatment of liver diseases
Biological characteristics of stem cells and treatment of liver diseases. MSCs for the treatment of liver diseases, some scholars believe that MSCs may be related to repairing damaged liver cells, inhibiting liver fibrosis, improving immune function, and reducing inflammatory reactions.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are cells with self-replication and multi-differentiation potential. They can theoretically develop into various types of cells. Therefore, they have become an important choice for cell therapy and opened up a new field for regenerative medicine, especially in the liver. There are good application prospects in disease treatment.
Biological characteristics of MSCs
Studies have found that MSCs not only have the properties of immune regulation, but also have the properties of monitoring and regulating the inflammatory response. During the initial stage of inflammatory response, some cytokines can activate MSCs in the human body to achieve the purpose of inhibiting the proliferation of T cells.
It was also found that MSCs can secrete a variety of biologically active molecules, such as growth factors and cytokines that are anti-apoptotic, anti-fibrosis, anti-inflammatory, promote angiogenesis, and stimulate tissue regeneration.
The guidelines issued by ISCT point out that the cell surface markers that MSCs can express after in vitro expansion are CD73, CD105, and CD90, and they do not express CD34, CD31, and CD45 that are expressed by endothelial cells and HSC.
Research progress of MSCs in the treatment of liver diseases
Viral hepatitis (such as HBV, HCV), alcoholic liver disease, and autoimmune liver disease are more common in liver diseases. The common outcomes of chronic liver disease and liver injury are liver fibrosis and cirrhosis.
At present, the treatment of end-stage liver cirrhosis mostly adopts medical symptomatic treatment or surgical liver transplantation. However, liver transplantation cannot be widely used due to the scarcity of donors, high cost, high rejection, multiple complications and many other shortcomings.
With the rapid development of stem cell therapy technology, MSCs are widely used in the treatment of clinical diseases, providing new hope for the treatment of patients with end-stage liver cirrhosis.
Basic research of MSCs in the treatment of liver diseases
A number of basic studies have shown that MSCs transplantation can improve liver function.
MSCs can promote hepatocyte proliferation, inhibit hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation and macrophage infiltration in the treatment of chronic liver injury in mice.
A study on the treatment of MSCs in mice with liver fibrosis showed that it can significantly improve and recover liver diseased tissues, and reverse the process of liver fibrosis.
Another study showed that MSCs from different sources have a certain therapeutic effect on end-stage liver cirrhosis caused by multiple factors. For example, intravenous administration of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSC) can effectively alleviate the process of liver fibrosis in rats , Increase the level of interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the body. Intravenous administration of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSC) can inhibit the progression of non-alcoholic liver fibrosis by inhibiting interleukin-17 (IL-17)-mediated inflammation.
Clinical research of MSCs in the treatment of liver diseases
A randomized controlled trial of patients with chronic liver failure caused by hepatitis B followed up 56 patients for 24 weeks. The results showed that the patients’ serum bilirubin levels and MELD score were significantly reduced.
In another clinical trial of 20 patients with liver fibrosis caused by chronic HCV, autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells were injected through the splenic artery. The clinical follow-up was 24 weeks. The results showed that the patients’ total bilirubin (TBil) and aspartame Amino acid aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and total protein (PT) were significantly reduced, and serum albumin (Alb) levels increased, which played the purpose of reversing the process of liver fibrosis.
In another clinical trial, in order to maximize the efficacy of MSCs transplantation, hematopoietic stem cells and MSCs were co-transplanted into patients with liver fibrosis. The results showed that they can effectively improve the survival level of new hepatocytes in patients with liver fibrosis and effectively improve liver fibrosis.
MSCs for the treatment of liver diseases, some scholars believe that MSCs may be related to repairing damaged liver cells, inhibiting liver fibrosis, improving immune function, and reducing inflammatory reactions.
With the gradual improvement of people’s understanding of the biological characteristics of MSCs and the continuous improvement of clinical trials, MSCs have broader application prospects in the field of regenerative medicine.
(sourceinternet, reference only)