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What is ganglion cell glioma? Will it recur?
What is ganglion cell glioma? Most ganglion cell gliomas grow slowly and are considered benign. However, as many as 10% of ganglion cell gliomas may grow faster and become malignant tumors, which means that the tumor affects the surrounding brain tissue.
Ganglion cell gliomas contain nerve cells and glial (supportive) cells, and usually start in childhood.
In fact, ganglion cell glioma glioma is a relatively common epilepsy-related brain tumor, and seizures may be difficult to control with drugs. Ganglion cell glioma mainly infects young people (87.5%), male patients, the highest incidence in the second decade of life, seizures (64%) are common.
Surgical resection is usually feasible, and for most patients, it is related to long-term good tumor control and seizure control. Glioma is the most common in children and young adults, and there is no gender advantage.
Where does ganglion cell glioma usually grow?
Ganglion cell gliomas are usually associated with seizures and occur in the temporal lobes of children and young adults (up to 58%).
Other common sites of ganglion cell glioma are the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, and occipital lobe. However, ganglion glioma can occur at any age and can actually be found anywhere in the central nervous system (CNS), such as the spinal cord, cerebellum, thalamus, hypothalamus, lateral ventricle, brain stem, and optic nerve.
A recent study reported that the frontal and parietal lobe are the second most common sites of ganglion glioma.
The imaging features of ganglion cell glioma
MR can be cystic, cystic, and solid. The real part of T1WI is mostly low signal or equal signal, and T2WI usually shows high signal. The reinforcement of the solid part has a variety of performances, which can be manifested as no to obvious reinforcement, or it can be ring-shaped reinforcement. Tumor cystic transformation usually manifests as the following three types: the cyst wall has obvious enhancement, the enhancement nodules can be seen in the cyst, and the cyst without obvious cyst wall in the tumor. The peritumoral edema is mostly mild. The borders are clearer. Ganglion cell glioma is prone to calcification, and calcification is usually nodular, circular, patchy, and dotted.
Will ganglion cell glioma recur?
Most ganglione gliomas have a good prognosis; patients with malignant histology, older onset and biopsy treatment have a poor prognosis; the role of radiotherapy and chemotherapy on low-grade tumors that have not been fully resected is uncertain. The progress of the tumor cannot be ignored, and long-term follow-up observation and treatment are required.
What is the prognosis of ganglion cell glioma?
Ganglion cell gliomas generally have a good prognosis, with a 10-year survival rate of 84-93%. One series reported a 5-year survival rate of 93%, and another study showed a 7.5-year survival rate of 98%. The degree of resection is closely related to recurrence, and complete tumor resection can achieve the best tumor control and progression-free survival.
Another important prognostic factor is histological grade. Although the criteria for WHO grade 2 nodular glioma have not been established, WHO grade 2 tumors have atypical histological features, such as increased cells and increased mitotic activity, and lack clear degenerative features.
Some studies based on the 3-layer histopathological grading system reported that 2 tumors accounted for about 10% and WHO grade 3 tumors accounted for 2.5-5% of all ganglion cells. Majores et al. studied the survival rate and recurrence rate according to tumor grade. The 5-year survival rate of WHO, 1, 2 and 3 tumor patients is 99%, 79%, 53%, and the recurrence rate is 2%, 33%, and 60%, respectively.
DeMarchi et al. investigated the survival time of anaplastic ganglion glioma based on previous publications and found that 9 (39%) of 23 patients with anaplastic ganglion glioma died an average of 13 months after diagnosis.
Although some authors report that histological grade is not a predictor of adverse outcomes, it may play a role in determining the clinical process and should therefore be considered when choosing treatment.
The degree of resection is considered to be the main prognostic factor in the treatment of ganglion cell glioma. Low-grade ganglion cell glioma can be cured by surgery, and complete tumor resection is a more effective treatment.
Preserving radiotherapy after surgery for progressive or malignant tumors, long-term epilepsy, and temporal tumor location are favorable prognostic factors.
Temporal lobe tumors are usually accompanied by epilepsy, and in most cases, the temporal lobe can be completely resected with ganglion glioma tumors.
As a result, epilepsy and temporal lobe position are associated with a good prognosis. In contrast, inferior ganglion glioma tumors, which usually cause cerebellar dysfunction or cranial nerve defects rather than epilepsy, are often difficult to completely remove, leading to a poor prognosis.