September 25, 2022

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Two new coronaviruses that can infect humans are from dogs and pigs

Two new coronaviruses that can infect humans are from dogs and pigs

 


Two new coronaviruses that can infect humans are from dogs and pigs.  On May 20, 2021, Science published a news article titled: Two more coronaviruses can infect people, studies suggest, stating that two new coronaviruses that can infect humans have been discovered.

Before that, only 7 types of coronaviruses that can infect humans were known. In 1966, scientists discovered the first coronavirus HCoV-229E that can infect humans. Later, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63, HCoV- HKU1, these four coronaviruses can infect humans, but they are less pathogenic and only cause cold-like symptoms.

However, SARS-CoV discovered in 2011, MERS-CoV discovered in 2012, and SARS-CoV-2 discovered in 2019, these three coronaviruses not only infect humans, but may also cause severe symptoms and even death.

In just the past ten years, three highly pathogenic coronaviruses have appeared one after another. Therefore, it is very important to continuously observe coronaviruses that may infect humans.

On May 20, 2021, researchers from Duke University and Ohio State University published a research paper titled Novel Canine Coronavirus Isolated from a Hospitalized Pneumonia Patient, East Malaysia in the Journal of Clinical Infectious Diseases.

Two new coronaviruses that can infect humans are from dogs and pigs

The research team re-tested 301 samples of pneumonia patients who were hospitalized in Sarawak State Hospital in Malaysia from 2017 to 2018. A new canine coronavirus was detected in 8 samples.

The eight children who were detected with the new coronavirus infection lived in rural areas in Sarawak, Malaysia. The local hospital did not have standard diagnostic procedures for pneumonia and other respiratory diseases, so no coronavirus infection was found at that time.

The research team sequenced its complete genome and determined it as a new type of canine and cat recombinant α-coronavirus, and named it CCoV-HuPn-2018. This is the first time that a canine coronavirus can infect humans.

This study reminds us that canine and cat coronaviruses may not infect humans as previously thought. There is currently no evidence that such coronaviruses can spread from person to person, but they may be in animals or This ability has developed within human beings, so vigilance is required.

So far, the three life-threatening coronaviruses: SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, and MERS-CoV are all β-coronaviruses, and no α-coronavirus that can cause serious human diseases has been found.

This is the first report of a new canine and cat recombinant alpha-coronavirus isolated from a patient with human pneumonia. If the coronavirus is confirmed as a human pathogen, it will become the eighth coronavirus known to cause human diseases. These findings underscore the threat of animal coronaviruses to public health, which requires better surveillance.

On March 25 this year, researchers from the University of Florida in the United States published a research paper entitled Emergence of porcine delta-coronavirus pathogenic infections among children in Haiti through independent zoonoses and convergent evolution in the preprint medRxiv.

The research team discovered a porcine coronavirus in the serum of three Haitian children with fever from 2014 to 2015. The researchers transferred the serum samples into monkey cells and were able to grow a virus that genetically matches the known porcine coronavirus. (This work has been submitted to a peer-reviewed journal).

Two new coronaviruses that can infect humans are from dogs and pigs

This porcine coronavirus belongs to the delta-coronavirus. Previously, delta-coronavirus was thought to only infect birds. Later, the infection was found in pigs, which indicates that the virus has jumped out of birds and started to infect mammals.

Professor Ralph Baric, an authoritative expert on coronavirus research, said that this is the only known coronavirus that can infect both birds and mammals. And subsequent studies have shown that the virus can infect human cell lines under in vitro culture conditions.

These two studies jointly pointed out the importance of animal diseases in public health, and also reminded us of our need for domestic animals to use coronavirus vaccines.

Finally, Professor Ralph Baric said that these studies clearly show that more research is urgently needed to assess key issues regarding the frequency of cross-species coronavirus transmission and their potential for human-to-human transmission.

 

(source:internet, reference only)


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