June 29, 2022

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Current status and Future of mRNA vaccines under COVID-19 pandemic

Current status and Future of mRNA vaccines under COVID-19 pandemic

Current status and Future of mRNA vaccines under COVID-19 pandemic

The mRNA vaccine has attracted much attention in the fight against the COVID-19 pneumonia epidemic. Formulas from companies such as Moderna and BioNTech/Pfizer allow people to slowly ease the social distancing measures, mask requirements and lockdown measures that have prevailed since the beginning of 2020 .

In the past year, research work focused on mRNA vaccines has made this technology the frontier of public awareness and further research, leading to new potentials in the principles of bio- nanotechnology to promote further innovation in the use of mRNA .

In addition to reducing the burden of COVID-19 , mRNA vaccines may also provide long-term solutions for diseases ranging from influenza to AIDS throughout the world. Here, the author briefly reviews the history and development of mRNA vaccines in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic . In addition, this article also introduces the current research status and future research directions of mRNA vaccines.

Current status and Future of mRNA vaccines under COVID-19 pandemic

Image source: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addr.2021.114000

When the 2019 coronavirus disease pandemic in 2020 when the world to a standstill in the spring, the medical community and the scientific community and political leaders and other governments to quickly reach a consensus, that SARS-CoV2 virus will be carried out mass vaccination to control the disease The most effective strategy for impact and the fastest return to normal.

This firm belief in the public health impact of vaccines highlights their transformative role in ensuring human health. After several difficult months, billions of dollars in investment, and nearly undivided attention from the scientific community, a variety of new vaccines have been produced for this new disease.

Today, these vaccines are being vaccinated at an unprecedented rate, slowly bringing societies around the world back to normal life. The pandemic is not over yet-many countries, especially developing countries with low vaccine availability and / or poor population compliance, are still suffering from the virus.

New variants appear frequently and continue to cause new epidemics. The effectiveness of these vaccines poses a challenge. Individuals are still affected by the economic and health effects of the virus, but experts can confidently say that the worst of the pandemic has passed, and this paradigm shift can be largely attributable to Yu newly developed mRNA vaccine.

Historically, live vaccines, inactivated vaccines, and subunit vaccines have played a key role in controlling the spread of similar diseases such as smallpox and hepatitis, but these diseases have limited international presence, infectivity, and case-fatality. COVID-19 presents some new challenges in this regard ; the easy spread of this disease and the observable high fatality rate make it impossible to ignore or underestimate the impact of this virus on the general population.

Scientists believe that until the COVID-19 vaccine is widely available, lockdowns, social distancing / physical isolation, masks and other expedient measures are still necessary for public health, but this situation is not sustainable for a long time. The destruction of economies and livelihoods around the world, and the increase in suicide rates and mental health problems caused by isolation are evidence.

For these reasons, scientists and pharmaceutical companies face unique pressure from citizens and governments to create, produce, and widely distribute vaccines immediately, rather than after the process usually requires several years of development, testing, and quality control .

Starting in the spring and summer of 2020 , academia and pharmaceutical companies have begun to pay attention to messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines. Messenger RNA vaccines are different vaccine strategies that use the host’s cellular mechanism to synthesize viral proteins and form protective immunity in the host.

The limited applications of humans before the delivery of messenger RNA therapy are due to the instability of the messenger RNA in the body and what is being studied is mainly as an experimental strategy for cancer treatment , but the urgency of the epidemic requires the rapid development of vaccines with high safety and easy expansion / production . And it has a strong therapeutic effect, which is what the mRNA vaccine can provide.

Nano latest technological advances, especially lipid-based nano- particles, provide a way for researchers, the mRNA delivered to the body tissues, and use this technology to produce the next generation of subunit vaccines, many leading pharmaceutical companies are eager to try And do it. So far, Moderna , Pfizer /BioNTech and other companies have successfully produced the new coronavirus mRNA vaccine. Their formula successfully passed the third phase of clinical trials in the fall of 2020 and obtained a rare emergency use authorization from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ( FDA ) .

Both Moderna and Pfizer/BioNTech use the mRNA method that requires two injections, while the viral vector method used by Johnson Johnson only requires one injection. The latter method uses different viruses to genetically encode instructions designed to combat COVID-19 infection.

Pfizer/BioNTech was the first to be approved on December 11, 2020, and Moderna was approved a week later.

Johnson’s vaccine was approved on February 27, 2021. All vaccines are currently approved for use in adults, and Pfizer’s vaccine is also approved for use in adolescents.

In addition, all three vaccines have received emergency use authorizations in different countries.

On August 23, 2021, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) officially approved the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine.

The widespread use of these vaccines began when they first appeared and continues to this day; although there must be initial hesitation in the eyes of the public (some of them lasted until 2021), extensive trials and studies have confirmed these vaccines The safety and effectiveness.

As of September 2021, more than 44% of the world’s population has been partially vaccinated against COVID-19, and the stability of the world depends on the continued success of vaccination efforts.

Current status and Future of mRNA vaccines under COVID-19 pandemic

The mechanism of mRNA vaccine causing immunity

Image source: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addr.2021.114000

The rapid pace of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine development highlights the benefits and utility of mRNA delivery as a vaccination strategy. It is worth exploring how to improve and improve this technology to provide prevention and treatment solutions for a wide range of diseases.

In addition to the COVID- 19 disease, some infectious and tropical diseases continue to harm the population of developing countries, and there are limited ways to prevent them. The basic principles behind mRNA vaccines may be used to create effective solutions for these diseases.

This article reviews the development and current status of messenger RNA vaccines and their modern uses, their benefits / limitations and applications in the treatment and generation of immunity against different diseases , and how to use the principles of bio- nanotechnology to further improve messenger RNA vaccines in the future Application . 

Current status and Future of mRNA vaccines under COVID-19 pandemic

(source:internet, reference only)

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