June 19, 2024

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How Vitamin B-Related Amino Acids Increase the Risk of Dementia?

New Study Reveals How Vitamin B-Related Amino Acids Increase the Risk of Dementia


New Study Reveals How Vitamin B-Related Amino Acids Increase the Risk of Dementia.

A recent study has explored the potential connection between certain amino acids and an increased risk of dementia associated with PM2.5 air pollution exposure.

While no definitive conclusions have been reached, the research suggests that high levels of homocysteine or low levels of methionine may interact with pollution to raise the risk of dementia, underscoring the need for a deeper understanding of the mechanisms behind air pollution’s impact on the brain.


New Study Reveals How Vitamin B-Related Amino Acids Increase the Risk of Dementia


According to a study published in the journal Neurology by the American Academy of Neurology, elevated levels of vitamin B-related amino acids may be linked to dementia risk associated with specific types of air pollutants known as particulate matter.

While the study did not establish causation between pollution or amino acids and dementia, it does highlight a potential connection.


Researchers investigated fine particulate matter, PM 2.5, consisting of particles with a diameter less than 2.5 micrometers suspended in the air. They also studied two amino acids, methionine and homocysteine. Methionine is an essential amino acid found in foods like meat, fish, dairy products, legumes, and eggs, playing a role in normal brain function. Homocysteine, on the other hand, is an amino acid produced in cells and can be converted into methionine through reactions that require vitamin B12 and folate, essential nutrients for red blood cell formation and overall cell growth and function.


“Previous research has found an association between air pollution and dementia risk, but we have not had a good understanding of the mechanisms by which air pollution affects the brain,” said Dr. Giulia Grande, one of the study authors from the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden. “In this study, we found that two types of vitamin B-related amino acids play a role in increasing or decreasing dementia risk caused by air pollution.”


In this study, over 2,500 adults with an average age of 73, residing in central Stockholm, were followed for up to 12 years, during which 376 individuals developed dementia.

Participants underwent interviews, blood tests, and completed questionnaires about their physical activity and dietary habits.

The researchers then calculated the annual average levels of PM 2.5 exposure based on the participants’ residential addresses. Those who developed dementia had an average exposure to PM 2.5 pollution of 8.4 micrograms per cubic meter (μg/m3), while those who did not develop dementia had an average exposure of 8.3 μg/m3. These PM 2.5 levels were lower compared to the European average of 13.8 μg/m3.

After adjusting for several factors influencing dementia risk, including age, gender, smoking, and education, the researchers found that for every 1 μg/m3 increase in PM 2.5 exposure in the five years leading up to the study, the risk of dementia increased by 70%.

The researchers then explored whether amino acids influenced the impact of air pollution exposure on dementia.

Overall, the study found that about half of the increased dementia risk associated with PM 2.5 was due to the interaction between air pollution and high homocysteine levels or low methionine levels.

“Our results suggest that both elevated homocysteine levels and low methionine values play a role in determining the dementia risk associated with air pollution, but it also indicates that air pollution has a substantial direct impact on dementia, highlighting the need for further research into the exact biological mechanisms behind air pollution-related brain damage,” Grande said.





New Study Reveals How Vitamin B-Related Amino Acids Increase the Risk of Dementia

“Associations of Long-Term Exposure to Air Pollution with Dementia Risk—Roles of Homocysteine, Methionine, and Cardiovascular Burden,” by Giulia Grande, Babak Hooshmand, David Liborio Weetman, David Smith, Helga Refsum, Laura Fratiglioni, Peter Rådman, Jing Wu, Andrea Bellavia, Christina Eneroos, Tom Bellander, and Debora Rizzuto, July 13, 2023, Neurology.
DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000207656.

(source:internet, reference only)

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