HPV Vaccines and Cervical Cancer
HPV Vaccines and Cervical Cancer. Cervical cancer is a serious threat to women’s health, and the “invisible killer” that has changed. The successful development of the HPV vaccine will bring good news to women, so that the future without cervical cancer will not be a dream! Health is the foundation and source of a happy life for women.
1. Global comprehensive prevention and control strategy for cervical cancer
Cervical cancer is the second most common malignant tumor for women in the world. It seriously harms women’s health. It not only causes great suffering to the patients and their family members, but also causes huge losses to social development and global health. However, cervical cancer is a preventable and controllable tumor. At this year’s World Health Assembly, WHO issued the “Global Strategy for Accelerating the Elimination of Cervical Cancer”, which put forward three goals and key measures for the elimination of cervical cancer by 2030:
To achieve that 90% of girls complete the HPV vaccination before the age of 15;
70% of women are screened by efficient testing methods before the age of 35 and 45;
90% of women with positive precancerous lesions were treated, and 90% of invasive cancer cases were managed.
By 2050, the successful implementation of these three measures can reduce more than 40% of new cases and 5 million related deaths. The application of HPV vaccine is one of the core measures to prevent cervical cancer. The 2017 WHO position paper puts forward: It is recommended that HPV vaccine be included in the national immunization program. As of June 2020, 107 countries and regions around the world have included HPV vaccines in their national immunization programs. This is the best gift for girls.
2. China’s comprehensive prevention and control strategy for cervical cancer
(1) “Two cancers” examinations for rural women
In 2009, the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Finance, and the National Women’s Federation of China issued the “Project Management Plan for the “Two Cancers” Examination for Rural Women”, which carried out a nationwide (221 counties and districts) of 35-64-year-old women in rural areas. “Two cancers” examinations, by 2019, nearly 100 million cervical cancer examinations have been performed, and 177,000 cases of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions have been detected. In 2019, China’s National Health Commission, the Ministry of Finance and other departments jointly issued a document to include the rural women’s “two cancers” inspection project into the national basic public health service project. More rural women will benefit and receive health protection. In the “Chinese Women’s Development Program (2021-2030)”, it is proposed to increase the rate of early diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer and breast cancer.
(2) “Guidelines for Comprehensive Prevention and Control of Cervical Cancer” (2017) Comprehensive Prevention and Control Strategy
Primary prevention: health education and HPV vaccination for women of school age;
Secondary prevention: regular physical examination and cervical cancer screening for women 25 years and older;
Tertiary prevention: timely diagnosis and treatment of precancerous lesions.
By taking three-level preventive measures, there will be fewer and fewer patients with cervical precancerous lesions or severe cervical lesions. Eliminating cervical cancer is not just a dream but a reality.
(3) China develops HPV vaccine
For the prevention and control of cervical cancer, the most important thing is primary prevention, namely HPV vaccination. The bivalent HPV vaccine independently developed by China has gone through 18 years and was approved for marketing on December 31, 2019. This makes China the third country in the world to achieve independent supply of HPV vaccine after the United States and the United Kingdom. Strong support from the Health Organization and other international non-governmental organizations.
In 2020, the Xiamen Municipal Government of China will implement a three-year free two-shot domestic bivalent HPV vaccine for girls between 13 and 14 and a half years old to reduce the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in Xiamen and improve women’s health. The approval of China’s domestic HPV vaccine for marketing is considered to be expected to reduce prices, increase supply, improve vaccine accessibility, and increase the possibility of being included in China’s national immunization program.
3. What is the relationship between HPV and cervical cancer? Is it true that you will get cervical cancer if you are infected with the virus?
“What is the relationship between HPV and cervical cancer?”
In 2004, the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organization solemnly announced that HPV infection is a necessary factor for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer in women.
HPV is the abbreviation of the English name of “Human Papilloma Virus”. There are more than 130 subtypes in the HPV family, some of which are closely related to malignant tumors and are called high-risk HPV, such as “type 16, 18”.
The vast majority of HPV infections are asymptomatic transient infections. More than 80% of HPV infections can be cleared by the body’s natural immunity within 6-24 months, and only a few persistent high-risk HPV infections develop through 10-20 years of natural evolution. For cancer. Therefore, persistent high-risk HPV infection is the main cause of cervical cancer and affects women’s health.
Health problems related to HPV infection are mainly cervical cancer and genital warts.
HPV infection is related to 5.2% of tumors, among which HPV infection is the initial and necessary factor in the onset of cervical cancer. HPV 16 and 18 are related to 70% of cervical cancers. HPV 16 is more common in cervical squamous cell carcinoma, and HPV 18 is more common in cervical cancer. Adenocarcinoma. HPV types 6 and 11 are related to 90% of genital warts.
4. Will HPV vaccine be infected?
“A small HPV vaccine is very mysterious. Will it be infected after it is shot?”
The HPV vaccine is the world’s first vaccine used to prevent tumors, and humans have tried to eliminate a type of cancer through vaccines for the first time. This vaccine is a recombinant HPV virus-like particle, which is the main active ingredient of the HPV vaccine. It uses a special protein shell on the virus to trigger human immunity. Compared with infectious HPV, HPV virus-like particles do not contain Viral DNA retains immunogenicity, but is not infectious.
Therefore, the vaccine itself is not a virus, but a protein. It has no virus function and will not cause virus infection. Studies at home and abroad show that bivalent, quadrivalent and ninth-valent all show good immunogenicity.
5. HPV vaccination is a safe, effective and vital measure to eliminate cervical cancer
On February 4, 2019, the International Institute for Cancer Research (IARC) made a press release on “World Cancer Day 2019”: “HPV vaccination is safe, effective and essential to eliminate cervical cancer.”
Cervical cancer is caused by multiple factors such as infection, immune, genetic, physical and chemical factors. Although HPV vaccine does not cover all infection types and cannot prevent cervical cancer 100%, HPV vaccination can prevent at least 80% of the target population. At present, it has been confirmed in the developed countries of the United States, Canada, and Australia that HPV vaccination can greatly reduce the risk of cervical cancer morbidity and death, which brings hope to the elimination of cervical cancer.
There are two peak periods of female infection: 17-24 years old and 40-44 years old. Therefore, WHO recommends that girls 9-14 years old who have not had sex as the primary vaccinations. Early vaccination and early prevention are the best for mothers to give their daughters. Health investment. The HPV vaccine should cover women of multiple ages. It is still important to vaccinate HPV vaccines in 30+, 40++ “sisters”. Love yourself and get immune protection.
Paying attention to women’s health, growth and happiness is an indispensable part of leading our society and family to a warmer, happier, and more upward healthy lifestyle. It will promote the happiness of the whole society and family! Caring for women, caring for the gate of life, hope that cervical cancer will be eliminated in the near future through comprehensive prevention and treatment measures such as vaccination, regular screening, early diagnosis and treatment, so that we women will be healthier, more confident, beautiful and full of vitality!