COVID-19 Vaccine: Attentions when vaccination
COVID-19 Vaccine: Attentions when vaccination. The COVID-19 vaccine is about to be launched. What issues should be paid attention to when vaccination?
The winter is here, and the COVID-19 epidemic is still spreading globally. China is also facing the risk of local transmission caused by imported cases from abroad. There is even the possibility of sporadic and local clustering of epidemics in various provinces. In addition, the country has a large-scale cooling in the past few days. The first snow in 2020 in many parts of the north also means that the risk of the epidemic has increased.
Fortunately, many companies have developed COVID-19 vaccines, and some have even been put into emergency use. However, emergency use is only for specific high-risk groups, and there is still a long way to go before large-scale popularization after listing.
Recently, Sinopharm Group has reported good news: Shi Shengyi, general manager of Sinopharm Group, said that Sinopharm Group has submitted a COVID-19 vaccine application to the State Food and Drug Administration. It also means that the COVID-19 vaccine developed by Sinopharm will be launched soon, and ordinary people can get it immediately!
If the COVID-19 vaccine is successfully marketed, what issues should ordinary people pay attention to when they want to vaccinate?
1. When and where can I get the COVID-19 vaccine?
After the vaccine is on the market, it will enter the disease control bidding procurement system. Follow the procedure to centrally purchase and distribute to various vaccination sites. You can go to the nearest community health service center for vaccination. For details, please consult the local vaccination clinic.
The current emergency vaccination procedure for the COVID-19 vaccine is 2 doses (1 dose of adenovirus vector vaccine), with an interval of 14-28 days. The recommended interval is 28 days. The vaccination age is 18-59 years old. The price of the vaccine is 200 yuan/bottle (bottle), with a total of 400 yuan for 2 doses. After the official listing, the vaccination procedures should be similar.
2. How safe is the vaccine?
Globally, there are more than 180 COVID-19 vaccines in different stages of research and development. There are now more than a dozen COVID-19 vaccines in clinical phase III globally, and China accounts for 5 types.
From the published data, the probability of adverse reactions related to vaccine safety is within the normal range.
According to the introduction of Liu Jingzhen, Chairman of Sinopharm Group on November 6, starting from June this year, Sinopharm’s COVID-19 vaccine has been launched in more than ten countries and regions including the UAE, Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Peru, and Argentina. III Phase trial, so far, more than 50,000 people have been vaccinated. The data of the Phase III clinical trial of Sinopharm China Bio-COVID-19 Vaccine were better than expected.
So far, no reports of serious adverse reactions have been received or observed. The adverse reactions that occurred are basically mild ones, such as local pain, redness and swelling at the injection site, as well as transient fever and fatigue. However, these adverse reactions may occur during the clinical stage and large-scale use of any vaccine after marketing. So from this point of view, the five new coronavirus vaccines currently undergoing phase III clinical trials in China are relatively safe.
In fact, the introduction of vaccines must pass repeated and rigorous clinical tests to ensure that their benefits far outweigh the risks, so we don’t have to worry too much about the safety of vaccines.
3. How long is the protection period of the vaccine?
Since most of the vaccines are still in the third phase of clinical trials, long-term and a large amount of research work remains to be done on how long each vaccine will protect after vaccination.
According to the “Guidelines for Clinical Evaluation of New Coronavirus Vaccines for Prevention (Trial)” issued by the Center for Drug Evaluation of the National Medical Products Administration, the effectiveness of the new coronavirus vaccine is specifically proposed: the vaccine should provide protection for 1 year or more If it cannot reach 12 months, at least 6 months of protection will be provided.
The interim results of the phase 1/2 clinical trial COV001 led by Oxford University showed that among all the participants evaluated, the new coronavirus vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 can tolerate and produce antibodies and cells against the new coronavirus Immune response.
Among volunteers who received a dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, the level of antibodies against the spike protein of the new coronavirus reached a peak on the 28th day after vaccination, and remained at a high level 56 days after vaccination. Among the volunteers who were vaccinated twice, the level of antibodies against the spike protein was significantly higher than that of the volunteers who were vaccinated once.
The results of serum monitoring of subjects who were first vaccinated in China showed that the subjects’ antibodies still maintained a high level, which suggested that the vaccine may have a longer-term protective effect. However, based on the experience of influenza vaccines in previous years, the vaccine is not expected to achieve the effect of lifelong immunity. How long the specific force can last, the answer is still to be determined by the data of the subject’s serum test.
On November 17, 2020, Zhou Song, the general counsel of Sinopharm China Biologics, said in an interview with a reporter from Sinopharm Jingwei that the COVID-19 vaccine of Sinopharm will be launched before the end of 2020. “The term of protection is more than 1 to 3 years.”
4. What are the common adverse reactions of vaccination?
Any kind of vaccine will produce certain adverse reactions during the clinical stage and large-scale use after marketing. The COVID-19 vaccine is no exception. Its adverse reactions include:
- Local reactions, including swelling, pain, and induration at the inoculation site;
- Mild side effects of the whole body, including transient fever, fatigue, etc.;
- Other serious adverse reactions are relatively rare.
Comparison of adverse reactions between Ad5 carrier COVID-19 vaccine and Ad5 carrier Ebola vaccine
In addition, according to the currently published information, the five vaccine candidates in clinical trials in China have all completed the evaluation of their effectiveness and safety in animal models. Both Beijing Kexing’s new coronavirus inactivated vaccine and Oxford University’s ChAdOx1 vaccine are safe and effective through the rhesus monkey model. No obvious ADE effect or Th2-biased immune damage was observed, which shows that the inactivated new coronavirus vaccine The immune response produced by immunized animals may be different from the immune response produced by live new coronavirus infection in the human body.
At present, no vaccine-related ADE effects have been found after the COVID-19 vaccine, but whether there is a rare risk of ADE, it needs to be closely monitored in large-scale phase III clinical and even larger population applications after marketing to know. (AED effect, also known as antibody-dependent infection enhancement effect, refers to a phenomenon in which the symptoms of viral infection will be aggravated when exposed to the virus again after vaccination.)
COVID-19 vaccine animal experimental data (WHO and other publicly released data collation)
5. How to deal with and rationally treat adverse reactions?
Vaccination is the most effective, economical, and convenient public health intervention to control and even eliminate infectious diseases. The benefits it brings far outweigh the risks. We must take a correct view of its adverse reactions, even if they may occur. Take the whole point and give up eating because of choking.
What’s more, so far, China’s COVID-19 vaccine has not received serious adverse reaction reports, and the general adverse reactions are within the normal range. Under normal circumstances, they will alleviate by themselves in 2-3 days and generally do not require special treatment. If the symptoms of discomfort are severe or other serious adverse reactions occur, seek medical treatment in time.
6. Can vaccines end the epidemic?
The success of the vaccine has undoubtedly brought a boost to the prevention and control of the epidemic, and is the dawn of people returning to normal life. However, the COVID-19 vaccine is still in a state of emergency vaccination and has not been fully put into use. It is likely to enter the market in 2021. Liu Jingzhen, Chairman of Sinopharm Group, previously revealed at the press conference that China National Biotechnology Co., Ltd. is ready for large-scale production. The two COVID-19 vaccine P3 production plants of Beijing Institute of Biology and Wuhan Institute of Biology have been completed. The production capacity can reach 610 million doses, and it will reach over 1 billion doses in 2021. However, based on two doses of vaccination per person, this amount cannot fully meet the needs of all ordinary people in China, let alone export it.
Zhang Wenhong, director of the Department of Infectious Diseases at Huashan Hospital affiliated to Fudan University, also said that it is only useful if the proportion of all people vaccinated exceeds 60%. If this coverage rate cannot be achieved, the spread of the COVID-19 pneumonia virus will not be effectively prevented, and the global restart will still face challenges.
There is a long way to go to end the epidemic, not to mention that it takes time to produce antibodies after vaccination. It is not enough to rely on vaccines to build an immune barrier. In addition to maintaining a high level of vaccination rate, raising awareness of prevention and control, and taking protective measures, it is also important to combine the three to effectively control the development of the epidemic in the long term.