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Breast cancer diagnosis: tumor genome detection
Breast cancer diagnosis: tumor genome detection. Breast cancer genetic testing can help doctors make better treatment plans.
Tumor genome assays (or tests) analyze cancer tumor samples to understand how active certain genes are. The activity level of these genes affects the behavior of cancer, including its likelihood of growth and spread. Genomic testing is used to help determine whether more treatments after surgery are beneficial.
Although their names sound similar, genomic testing and genetic testing are quite different.
Perform genetic testing on your blood, saliva, or other tissue samples and tell you whether there are abnormal changes in genes (also called genetic mutations) that are associated with a higher risk of breast cancer.
There are several tests used to analyze genes in breast cancer to help predict whether breast cancer will recur. All tests can be performed on preserved tissue samples taken from the breast during the original biopsy or surgery.
The differences between the tests are explained as follows:
- The breast cancer index test analyzes the activity of 7 genes to help predict the risk of lymph node-negative, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer coming back 5 to 10 years after diagnosis. This test can help women and their doctors decide whether prolonging hormone therapy for 5 years (a total of 10 years of hormone therapy) is beneficial.
- The Breast Cancer Index reports two scores: the likelihood that the cancer will recur within 5 to 10 years after diagnosis, and the likelihood that women will benefit after receiving hormone therapy for 10 years.
- The EndoPredict test is used to predict early distant recurrence, hormone receptor positive, HER2-negative breast cancer is either lymph node negative, or has a risk of up to three positive lymph nodes.
- The EndoPredict test analyzes 12 genes to understand how active they are, and then combines this risk score with the size of the cancer and lymph node status to calculate the EPclin score, which classifies the cancer as a high-risk or low-risk distant recurrence.
- ·The MammaPrint test analyzes 70 genes to see how positive they are, and then calculates either high-risk or low-risk recurrence scores.
- Studies have shown that the MammaPrint test may eventually be widely used to make treatment decisions based on the risk of recurrence of early, hormone receptor-positive or hormone receptor-negative diseases.
- The Mammostrat test measures the levels of five genes in breast cancer cells. These measurements are used to calculate the risk index score. According to the risk index score, women are divided into risk categories (high, medium or low).
- Studies have shown that the Mammostrat test may eventually be widely used to make treatment decisions based on the risk of recurrence of early hormone receptor-positive diseases.
- The Oncotype DX test is used to estimate the risk of early, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer recurrence and how women benefit from chemotherapy after breast cancer surgery.
The Oncotype DX DCIS test analyzes the activity of 12 genes and then estimates the risk of recurrence of DCIS (ductal carcinoma in situ) in women or the risk of new aggressive cancers in the same breast. Benefit from radiotherapy after DCIS surgery.
The Oncotype DX test analyzes the activity of 21 genes and then calculates the recurrence score between 0 and 100; the higher the score, the greater the risk of invasive breast cancer recurrence.
Among the genomic tests for breast cancer, the Oncotype DX test has the most comprehensive data to support its use in making treatment decisions. Because of this powerful research, the Oncotype DX test is the most common test used in the United States to make treatment decisions.
The Prosigna breast cancer prognostic gene signature assay analyzes the activity of 58 genes, and calculates the risk of recurrence score (low, medium, high).
Studies have shown that the Prosigna test can eventually be used more frequently to make treatment decisions based on the risk of distant recurrence (the cancer is part of the body away from the breast) within 10 years of early hormone receptor diagnosis. Postmenopausal women have up to 3 positive lymph nodes after 5 years of hormone therapy.
No matter which test you take, you and your doctor will consider your score in conjunction with other information in your pathology report, such as:
- The size and grade of cancer
- Hormone receptor protein level
- Whether cancer cells have been found in nearby lymph nodes
Propose a treatment plan for you.
(source:internet, reference only)