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New breakthrough: Cancer vaccine for Refractory soft tissue sarcoma.
Researchers have been committed to the research and development of new dendritic cell tumor vaccines. Many new vaccines have achieved good results in animal trials or early clinical trials, which are expected to benefit more advanced cancer patients.
Recently, the US FDA granted a new type of dendritic cell (DC) tumor vaccine ilixadencel the “Orphan Drug” (ODD) designation (ODD) for the treatment of patients with soft tissue sarcoma.
▌”Small” sarcoma, “big” trouble
Soft tissue sarcoma is a malignant tumor that occurs in any soft tissue of the whole body. It accounts for 1% of adult malignant tumors, which is relatively “niche”, but it accounts for up to 10% in children. It is one of the common solid tumors in children, and the mortality rate is high. fifth.
Soft tissue sarcoma not only has a high degree of malignancy and a poor prognosis, but the early symptoms are still not obvious. It is an invisible “killer”.
Sarcoma may initially be a painless mass with no specific symptoms. There are no specific signs of the hardness, edge size, and growth rate of the mass. In addition, the patient is a child and has no discernment ability. If the parents are not vigilant, once discovered, it may be late.
The subtypes of soft tissue sarcoma are complex, and there can be 50-100 subtypes. The more common ones include rhabdomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, Ewing’s tumor, liposarcoma, fibrosarcoma, etc. They can appear anywhere in the body, the most common part It is the limbs, followed by the chest and abdomen, and then the head and neck.
What is gratifying is that at the end of last year, China’s first “Soft Tissue Sarcoma Popular Science Guide” was released, which greatly filled the gap in the field of domestic soft tissue sarcoma.
In addition to education, the treatment of patients with soft tissue sarcoma also requires attention. At present, the main clinical treatment is surgery or radiotherapy/chemotherapy.
The options are very limited. In addition, the risk of recurrence is higher, and patients urgently need better treatments.
▌New tumor vaccine: ilixadencel
Ilixadencel is a kind of allogeneic dendritic cell therapy. Its active ingredient is dendritic cells extracted from the blood of healthy people.
These cells are activated in vitro to produce a large number of immune stimulating factors and prepare vaccines. After being administered by intratumor injection, the vaccine will cause local inflammation, activate the patient’s own immune cells and natural killer cells to enter the tumor environment, destroy and kill tumor cells.
At present, this research tumor vaccine targets a total of 6 cancer types, including solid tumors such as kidney cancer, liver cancer, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, head and neck tumors, non-small cell lung cancer and gastric cancer, and has unlimited potential in the future.
In May 2020, ilixadencel was awarded the title of Advanced Therapy for Regenerative Medicine by the FDA for patients with renal cell carcinoma. In December of the same year, it was approved by the FDA Fast Track for the treatment of GIST patients.
Up to now, only one dendritic cell vaccine Provenge has been approved for marketing in the United States for the treatment of prostate cancer, opening a new era of cancer vaccine immunotherapy.
Today, researchers have been committed to the research and development of new dendritic cell tumor vaccines.
Many new vaccines have achieved good results in animal trials or early clinical trials, which are expected to benefit more advanced cancer patients.
▌The remission rate is 33%, a good news for patients with advanced drug resistance!
This designation is based on the positive results of Phase 1/2 clinical trials. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Ilixadencel combined with targeted drugs in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST).
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor is a common type of soft tissue sarcoma (STS), which is highly resistant to conventional radio/chemotherapy.
Although imatinib and other tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) greatly improve the survival of unresectable or metastatic GIST, as the disease progresses, treatment options for advanced GIST are very limited, so TKI resistance is still A major challenge.
The trial enrolled 6 patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors who were inoperable and resistant to targeted therapy.
The data will be announced in 2020 by the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and the Society of Cancer Immunotherapy (SITC).
The results show that:
The objective response rate in the Ilixadencel treatment group was 33%. Two patients achieved clinical partial remission. The median progression-free survival was 4 months, and the median overall survival was 19 months.
Among them, one patient received the third-line treatment of Ilixadencel + regorafenib and obtained stable disease for 9 months; the other patient received the second-line treatment of Ilixadencel + sunitinib and obtained 12 months of stable disease.
Although the number of patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors enrolled in this trial is small, they are all in the advanced stage of the disease, and there are no other standard treatments in the clinic.
Ilixadencel combined with targeted drugs not only relieves the disease, but also has good resistance. Receptivity undoubtedly brings new hope for treatment for refractory patients.
The condition of children with soft tissue sarcoma is complex and the degree of malignancy is high.
In clinical treatment, the “one size fits all” treatment plan is not suitable for the treatment decision of soft tissue sarcoma and other highly heterogeneous cancers. We need to consider all mutations at the same time, analyze their interactions, and find the most effective treatment plan.
The tumor response index (TRI) test, through the use of innovative multi-omics modeling, computational biological simulation and artificial intelligence heuristic technology, can predict the most effective personalized therapy for patients.
New breakthrough: Cancer vaccine for Refractory soft tissue sarcoma
(source:internet, reference only)