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Fructose may damage the immune system
Fructose may damage the immune system. Sugar is an indispensable substance for the human body, but whether it is fructose discussed in this article, or sugar substances such as sucrose, glucose, and starch, “just enough” can ensure our healthy “growth” every day.
Fructose, the darling of the food and medicine industry in recent years, was once called “healthy sugar”.
But in fact, fructose is directly related to diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver. In recent years, the intake in developed countries has increased significantly. However, until now, people’s understanding of the effect of large amounts of fructose on the immune system is still very limited.
Recently, a new study titled Fructose reprogrammes glutamine-dependent oxidative metabolism to support LPS-induced inflammation published in the journal Nature Communications shows that fructose may damage the body’s immune system.
Specifically, the process of fructose absorption produces more reactive molecules related to inflammation. This inflammatory response damages cells and tissues, causing organs and body systems to not work properly, and may eventually lead to disease.
The researchers said that this study helped people better understand how fructose is linked to diabetes and obesity, because low levels of inflammation are often associated with obesity.
Is fructose “healthy sugar”?
Fructose is a monosaccharide, an isomer of glucose, and its molecular formula is C6H12O6. It exists in a large amount in fruit juice and honey in a free state, and fructose can also combine with glucose to produce sucrose.
Fructose not only has a fruity flavor, but also has a high sweetness, which is about 1.8 times that of sucrose. However, the glycemic index of fructose is low, that is, the GI value is low. GI (Glycemic Index) is an indicator reflecting the increase in human blood sugar caused by food, that is to say, the increase in human blood sugar after eating fructose is much lower than other Traditional natural sweets. At the same time, it is not easily decomposed and polymerized by microorganisms in the oral cavity. Therefore, the probability of tooth decay after eating is much smaller than that of natural sugars such as glucose or sucrose.
Natural fructose is found in fruits and honey, and the sweetness of fruits is related to the content of fructose. Artificial fructose is widely used. Common foods, such as ice cream, cakes, various beverages, bread, candied foods, etc., are found in people’s favorite sweets. In recent years, it has also had its place in the pharmaceutical industry, such as medicines that diabetic patients can take and anti-alcoholic medicines.
Fructose may damage the immune system
Dr. Nicholas Jones of Swansea University School of Medicine said: “Study on the different components of our diet can help us understand what can cause inflammation and disease, and when we can best use it to improve health.”
The research team used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce inflammation in human monocytes and mouse macrophages. Further studies found that fructose exposure reprograms cellular metabolic pathways to promote glutamine decomposition and oxidative metabolism, and fructose-dependent mTORC1 activity The increase in cytokine will drive the translation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to LPS.
mTORC1 gene expresses the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which can regulate cell growth and proliferation, and play an important role in signal transduction.
LPS is also known as endotoxin. When it acts on human or animal cells, it exhibits a variety of biological activities. Moreover, it exists as a structural protein in Gram-negative bacteria. When the bacteria die, it will be released and trigger our immune system. In LPS-induced mouse systemic inflammation model experiments, it was found that the level of IL-1β in the circulatory system of mice induced by LPS exposure to fructose increased. IL-1β is a pro-inflammatory cell signaling molecule, also known as interleukin.
Simply put, a large amount of fructose will increase pro-inflammatory cell signaling molecules, telling other cells to start an inflammatory response. Although the inflammatory response is important to fight off infection, once the inflammatory response responds, immune cells basically bomb the area suicide to kill anything. But if the inflammatory response continues for a long time, the white blood cells will become exhausted, making it difficult to resist the invasion of the real infection.
The researchers used the LPS-induced systemic inflammation model to prove that mice exposed to fructose increased circulating IL-1β levels. In other words, compared with glucose, high amounts of fructose may mess up your immune system. Whether this means anything to the complex human body, more research is needed to confirm.
How to eat sugar correctly?
The study warns us that fructose is not a so-called “healthy sugar”, and a high fructose diet can also cause many harmful effects on the body. So how should we eat sugar correctly?
The World Health Organization clearly stated in the “2015 Dietary Guidelines Recommendations”: Conclusive evidence shows that keeping free sugars (free sugars) intake below 10% of total energy intake, for adults with light physical activity Said that this amount is about 40-50g, which can reduce the risk of overweight, obesity and dental caries.
The added sugars mentioned in the restriction recommendations in this guide are also the free sugars mentioned above. Free sugars include monosaccharides and disaccharides added to food, as well as sugars naturally present in honey, syrups, fruit juices and concentrated fruit juices. The sugar in the sugary drinks we drink, the sugar added when making cakes, and the sugar added when cooking are all free sugars.
The WHO pointed out that more and more evidence shows that increased intake of free sugars (especially from sweet drinks) can lead to weight gain, dental caries, and may increase the risk of other related chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, metabolism Syndrome and trace element deficiency, myopia and so on.
It should be emphasized that the sugar contained in fruits and vegetables, as well as the lactose in milk and the starch in potatoes are not included, because there is currently no evidence that this part of sugar will bring health hazards.
Sugar is an indispensable substance for the human body, but whether it is fructose discussed in this article, or sugar substances such as sucrose, glucose, and starch, “just enough” can ensure our healthy “growth” every day.
(source:internet, reference only)