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Progress in tumor RNA immunotherapy research
Progress in tumor RNA immunotherapy research. The team of researcher Wang Hai and Nie Guangjun of China National Nanoscience Center has made progress in the immunotherapy of tumors with RNA vaccines. Related research results were published on Nano Letters with the title “In Situ Transforming RNA Nanovaccines from Polyethylenimine Functionalized Graphene Oxide Hydrogel for Durable Cancer Immunotherapy”.
The tumor mRNA vaccine synthesizes the corresponding tumor antigen protein through the translation system of immune cells, and then induces the human body to produce an immune response to the antigen protein, activates cellular immunity and humoral immunity, and achieves the killing effect on tumor cells.
However, RNA alone is easily degraded when exposed to the environment in the body, and mRNA cannot enter the cell by itself, which makes it impossible to achieve a durable therapeutic effect. At the same time, the immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment can interfere with the function of killer T cells, and other methods need to be used to further stimulate and expand the function of antigen-specific T cells.
Therefore, the development of effective delivery systems for RNA vaccines and immune adjuvants, protecting RNA vaccines from degradation, and achieving long-term stable immunity through a single injection is of great significance for the development of personalized tumor vaccines.
To overcome these problems, researchers designed a non-chemically bonded hydrogel containing graphene oxide and low-molecular-weight polyethyleneimine. The gel can effectively load mRNA vaccine and hydrophobic immune adjuvant (R848) through positive and negative charge adsorption and π-π conjugated, and protect the RNA vaccine from degradation by various external enzymes.
Different from traditional chemically cross-linked hydrogels, the new type of hydrogels are assembled by charge adsorption, and their surface is in an unstable state in a liquid environment. It can gradually transform into a nano-vaccine and target the immune system (see picture).
In vivo animal experiments have shown that after subcutaneous injection, the RNA nano-vaccine can be continuously released for at least 30 days, enter the draining lymph node and be taken up by the antigen-presenting cells, achieving a durable anti-tumor immunotherapy effect. This method provides a new solution for the stable storage and delivery of RNA vaccines. The American Chemical Society conducted interviews and reports on this work.
(source:internet, reference only)