June 27, 2022

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Mechanisms of stem cells can promote nerve repair after stroke ischemia

Three mechanisms of stem cells can promote nerve repair after stroke ischemia


Mechanisms of stem cells can promote nerve repair after stroke ischemia.  Stroke seriously endangers human health and life. It is the leading cause of death and disability among adults in our country, and the incidence is increasing year by year.

Stroke seriously endangers human health and life. It is the leading cause of death and disability among adults in our country, and the incidence is increasing year by year. After an ischemic stroke, most patients will recover to a certain degree over time.

 

Ischemic stroke is mainly caused by the interruption of blood supply to the brain and cerebral ischemia, which has a high incidence and poor prognosis. The nerve repair of ischemic brain tissue mainly includes angiogenesis and neurogenesis, and promotes the recovery of nerve function in the injured area.

The research content of nerve repair after cerebral ischemia is becoming more abundant. Stem cell therapy has become a new way to improve the prognosis of ischemic stroke. Among them, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), especially bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), are the most widely used. Extensive, can reduce brain damage and promote nerve repair in many aspects.

Mechanisms of stem cells can promote nerve repair after stroke ischemia

 

 

Three major mechanisms of MSCs promoting nerve repair after cerebral ischemia

MSCs promote angiogenesis after cerebral ischemia

Microangiogenesis can increase cerebral blood flow and nutrient supply in the injured area. In the process of angiogenesis, the initial vascular plexus forms mature blood vessels through sprouting, branching, pruning, endothelial cell growth and cell recruitment, and angiogenesis after cerebral ischemia branches from the original blood vessels. Angiogenesis and vascular maturation are regulated by VEGF and its receptors, and the angiopoietin 1 (An91)/Tie2 system.

Studies have shown that after using the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model to induce cerebral ischemia in rats, immediately after intracerebral injection of BMSCs, the expression of VEGF in the brain increased significantly after 7 days and promoted vascular remodeling. Rats were injected with human BMSCs within 24 hours after cerebral ischemia, the expression of VEGF, Angl and Tie2 in the cerebral ischemic area increased, which enhanced the stability of new blood vessels, enhanced angiogenesis and improved nerve repair after stroke [1].

BMSCs promote nerve repair after cerebral ischemia

The plasticity of neurons after cerebral ischemia represents the repair ability of the brain, and its strength is also related to the changes of other cells in the brain (such as astrocytes and microglia). BMscs can enhance the plasticity of the brain after cerebral ischemia by releasing nutrients and growth factors, such as VEGF, BDNF and bFGF. At the same time, it can also promote nerve repair by inhibiting the expression of pro-inflammatory factors. These factors not only promote the formation of blood vessels, but also affect the nerve repair process, including improving the plasticity of neurons, promoting the recovery of glial cell function, reducing brain inflammation, etc., and play a role in NVU as a whole.

BMSCs promote neural progenitor cell migration and neurogenesis studies have found that transplanting BMSCs into the ipsilateral brain tissue of MCAO model rats can increase the expression of BDNF, recombinant human neurotrophin-3 and VEGF and other factors in the ischemic brain tissue, and promote NSC proliferates. In many tissues, stromal cell-derived facto-1α (stromal cell-derived facto-1α, SDF-1α) and its cell receptor chemokine receptor 4 (CxCR4) have been shown to guide damage and repair. Migration of stem cells.

BMscs reduce neuroinflammation studies have found that BMSCs can inhibit the expression of cell adhesion factor-1 in endothelial cells, reduce neutrophil infiltration, and down-regulate the expression of MMP-9 to inhibit inflammation and reduce BBB damage.

 

BMSCs promote nerve repair through exosomes

In the study of ischemic stroke, it was found that intravenous infusion of stem cell vesicles has a neuroprotective effect, indicating that the recovery of the nervous system induced by stem cells is not only the result of cell regeneration, but also can play a role through paracrine.

Studies have shown that the exosomes secreted by BM-scs transfected with miR-17-92 are stronger than those secreted by untransfected BMscs [2]. These studies indicate that exosomes and micmRNA contained in exosomes may be the key to BMSCs to promote nerve repair.

 

 

Outlook

BMSCs play a significant role in the treatment of ischemic stroke and promote the recovery of nerve function, and can be used after cerebral ischemia. BMscs also has many advantages in the treatment of diseases.

It not only has strong proliferation and differentiation potential, but also has a source It is very rich, and its own low immunogenicity also reduces a lot of application risks. In addition, the in vitro culture method of BMScs is relatively simple and easy to modify.

Modification of BMscs can improve the effect of BMscs, which provides new ideas for the application of BMSCs.

 

(sourceinternet, reference only)


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