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What are the clinical applications of mesenchymal stem cell exosomes?
What are the clinical applications of mesenchymal stem cell exosomes? Exosomes are a hot word in the field of stem cells in recent years, and are considered the next frontier in the field of stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cell exosomes are derived from stem cells, but they are very different from stem cells. They are more flexible and easier to transform. They are a new direction for skin repair, anti-aging and treatment of various diseases.
Exosomes are a kind of vesicles, and their existence is like the “little prince of express delivery” between cells, and they are the carriers for the exchange of information and substances between cells.
Exosomes contain abundant biologically active substances such as protein, RNA and DNA. Stem cell exosomes have similar biological properties to stem cells, but are safer, more stable and more efficient, and have stronger and more complex signal molecule transport and regulation capabilities, providing a new strategy for tissue regeneration and tissue repair in the absence of cell transplantation. ,new method.
In recent years, the clinical research and application of mesenchymal stem cell exosomes have become more and more extensive. They are regarded as the “repairing artifact” of the skin, the new mainstream of repairing heart function, and the new outlet for anti-aging… At the same time, mesenchymal Stem cell exosomes have also been used in the treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia.
Exosomes treat COVID-19 pneumonia.
At present, nearly 200 clinical trials have applied stem cell exosomes in a series of treatments. For example, this year’s new registration trial (NCT04276987) is studying the safety and effectiveness of nebulized inhalation of the same type of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell exosomes in the treatment of severe COVID-19 pneumonia.
At the end of 2020, an article published in “Stem Cells and Development” pointed out that exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells are effective in treating patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia, with a recovery rate of 71%. Exosomes have the advantages of safety, restoration of oxygenation, down-regulation of cellular inflammatory factors, and reconstruction of immune system function. They are a promising drug candidate for the treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia.
Application of exosomes in skin repair
Stem cell exosomes are not only used clinically to repair damaged skin such as burns, skin ulcers, and wounds, but also have effects in improving skin texture and repairing aging and poisoned skin.
Studies have found that exosomes are involved in skin physiology and pathology, regulate the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the skin microenvironment, promote angiogenesis and collagen deposition in skin defects, and regulate the proliferation and differentiation of skin fibroblasts. Mesenchymal stem cell exosomes can significantly promote wound healing and inhibit scar formation.
Application of exosomes in the field of anti-aging
Studies have found that human induced pluripotent stem cell exosomes can significantly reduce the expression level of aging-related β-galactosidase and increase the expression of collagen in HDFs, which provides a theoretical basis for stem cell exosomes to beautify and resist aging. At present, medical beauty skin care products based on stem cell secretion factors launched by major beauty institutions have been used to protect or repair the skin.
In addition, stem cell exosomes have also been reported in the treatment of aging-related diseases. In common diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease associated with aging. The results of a number of studies have shown that mesenchymal stem cell exosomes have the potential to treat Alzheimer’s disease, and there are clinical research registrations related to stem cell exosomes.
Application of exosomes in cardiovascular field
More and more studies have confirmed that stem cell-derived exosomes have cardioprotective functions similar to stem cells. The transplantation of mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes can significantly increase the survival rate of cardiomyocytes, resist cardiomyocyte damage, promote the formation of new blood vessels, and improve heart function. Other studies have also confirmed that mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes have anti-inflammatory, anti-cardiomyocyte apoptosis and promotion of cardiomyocyte regeneration.
In recent years, the application of stem cell exosomes has involved the field of tumor therapy, medical foundation and immunity, and the field of parasites; clinical research has involved the cardiovascular system, endocrine and metabolic systems, etc. In addition to the above several fields, stem cell exosomes have also been applied to various diseases such as diabetes, osteoarthritis, endometrial injury repair, cancer and so on.
Stem cell-derived exosomes show strong repair, regeneration and protection capabilities in the cardiovascular system, traumatic brain injury, musculoskeletal system, liver injury, kidney injury, etc., and are expected to become a new type of “cell-free” therapy in regenerative medicine Repair tool.
(sourceinternet, reference only)