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The long-term inflammation caused by COVID-19 can only fully recover after two years!
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The latest research shows that the long-term inflammation caused by COVID-19 can only fully recover after two years!
Researchers from Singapore’s National Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Center for Infectious Diseases published a new research paper in the Journal of Medical Virology, confirming that the long-term symptoms observed in some people after COVID-19 pneumonia are related to persistent systemic inflammation.
The long-term inflammation observed in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 returns to healthy levels within two years of initial infection.
COVID-19 typically makes individuals sick within days or weeks of initial symptoms.
However, some people continue to experience symptoms that can last for weeks or longer, a syndrome often referred to as long-term COVID-19 sequelae , or COVID-19 sequelae.
People with chronic COVID-19 infection typically report one or more symptoms such as chronic fatigue, shortness of breath, joint or muscle pain, coughing, difficulty concentrating, memory problems, heart palpitations and insomnia, among others.
The exact reason behind the development of long-term COVID-19 sequelae remains unknown, but it occurs more often in people who have experienced severe COVID-19 infection or who have not been vaccinated.
To shed light on why some people become chronically infected with COVID-19, researchers conducted a longitudinal study over a 24-month period.
Doctors at NCID and Changi General Hospital (CGH) recruited 78 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, some of whom had developed severe infections.
After discharge, patients were followed up for up to 24 months after onset to assess the sequelae of COVID-19 infection.
After the first year of infection, approximately 37% of patients reported symptoms.
The scientists observed that patients with persistent symptoms continued to have inflammation up to 24 months after the first infection, with increased blood inflammatory cytokines and abnormal activation of the immune response.
In addition, they found that older adults who had more severe disease outcomes after an initial infection were more likely to experience prolonged systemic inflammation after recovery .
However, persistent symptoms after two years may or may not be related to COVID-19 infection.
There are also some people who are vaccinated and experience persistent inflammation and immune activation after being infected with COVID-19, but the persistent symptoms are related to the virus infection or may not be related (or vaccine immune activation).
Dr. Fong Siew-Wai, a research scientist in the lab and lead author of the study, said: “Our study provides valuable insight into the relationship between COVID-19, inflammation and post-recovery symptoms. It shows that people who experience persistent inflammation Immune cells show signs of aging . This breakthrough in research helps us better understand the lasting effects of COVID-19 infection experienced by patients. It also opens up new possibilities for developing treatments that specifically target the underlying cause of these long-term symptoms sex”.
Academician Zhang Boli once said: “Actually, we get this disease, which is the result of the game between the virus and the human body’s immunity . Often the virus wins and gets sick. Therefore, if the resistance is improved, it is often not easy to be infected, even if the infection is mild. of”.
The most common way to improve, the key lies in two kinds of cells: stem cells and immune cells.
When unfavorable factors occur, the difference in their functions in the body is: stem cells are for addition, and immune cells are for subtraction. Stem cells replenish the body with new cells, cytokines, etc., while immune cells remove harmful substances from the body.
Addition of stem cells to repair organ damage after COVID-19
If the human body is regarded as a huge and precise machine, stem cells are the busiest and most important repairmen in this machine.
Whether the machine is damaged or the parts are aging, this group of repairmen will show up to protect human health with all their strength.
They can not only differentiate in multiple directions and replenish fresh cells; they can also secrete cytokines to provide nutritional support to damaged cells.
In short, the role of stem cells is – to maintain vitality.
Combining prevention and treatment with repairing the sequelae of injury, stem cell therapy can quickly repair the damage caused by virus invasion to the body, restore the functions of tissues and organs, and at the same time enhance the immune function of the human body, which is safe and has no side effects.
Mesenchymal stem cells improve lung injury and promote regeneration of damaged tissues. Mesenchymal stem cells have regenerative potentials such as angiogenesis and neurogenesis.
Its paracrine function can produce a large number of soluble cytokines, chemokines and growth factors to promote the repair of tissue damage.
And the unique homing mechanism of stem cells makes it more effective in inhibiting virus infection and killing of tissues and organs.
Intravenous infusion of stem cells has long-term benefits in the recovery of lung lesions and symptoms.
Numerous studies have shown that:Mesenchymal stem cells coordinate immune regulation by mobilizing immune cells to kill viruses and inhibiting excessive activation of immune cells, which can restore the homeostasis of the immune microenvironment and promote the recovery of the immune system of patients with COVID-19, thereby improving the prognosis of patients with COVID-19 role.
By reinfusing mesenchymal stem cells, the unique immune regulation and regeneration capabilities of stem cells are utilized. It can inhibit the release of cytokines from the immune system and promote endogenous repair through the repair properties of stem cells, and it is safe and has no side effects.
Mesenchymal stem cells are currently the most widely used source of stem cells in regenerative medicine. Globally, thousands of clinical trials have proved its safety, and more than 10 mesenchymal stem cell drugs are on the market.
Hematopoietic stem cells are the first stem cell technology to be used clinically. Even a very small amount of hematopoietic stem cells can theoretically complete the reconstruction of the human hematopoietic system and immune system.
At present, the stem cells stored by people mainly come from the umbilical cord blood, umbilical cord, and placenta of newborns, the deciduous teeth of children in the tooth replacement period, and the fat of adults.
Immune cells do subtraction to kill viruses and clear damaged cells
If stem cells are the repairmen of the human body, then immune cells are equivalent to the cleaners of the human body.
On the one hand, they need to remove foreign invaders such as bacteria and viruses; on the other hand, they also need to remove aging cells and mutated cells in the body.
The function of immune cells is to eliminate and maintain stability.
For example, macrophages in phagocytic cells will directly swallow the virus after discovering it, release cytokines, call more companions to the battlefield, and send out an alarm to cause inflammation such as fever in the body.
Dendritic cells collect viral fragments, known as antigens, and deliver them to helper T cells.
Another route of helper T cells deactivates killer T cells and causes them to replicate in large numbers. Killer T cells target infected abnormal cells and destroy them, allowing the virus to lose its stronghold.
Therefore, whoever has a strong immune system has a say in the virus!
If immune cells fail to function properly, immune surveillance will become dysregulated, resulting in the accumulation of senescent cells, chronic inflammation, and increased prevalence of diseases in old age.
Take NK immune cells, the first line of defense for the human body to fight cancer and protect health: the role of NK cells and other immune cells is to fight against “enemies” such as viruses, bacteria, and cancer cells that attack our body, and continuously destroy the invading us. Viruses, bacteria, cancer cells, etc. in the body to maintain our human health.
There are at least 5 billion NK cells in each person’s body, and as many as 100 billion. But the number of NK cells is not directly proportional to their activity.
Even when NK cells appear to be present in sufficient numbers, without activating them, their work efficiency is very low.
Among immune cells, NK cells are easily affected by factors such as age, mental stress, and food. A large number of studies have proved that people with low NK cell activity are prone to cancer or virus infection; while cancer patients with low NK cell activity are prone to metastasis or recurrence.
A research report published in “PNAS” (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States) also pointed out that: T cell exhaustion can be reversed by reinfusion of fresh immune cells, and even chronic viral infections can be treated! It has created a new world for immune cells to treat infectious diseases and cancer.
A large number of studies have shown that: through in vitro culture and reinfusion of NK cells, not only can activate dormant NK cells in the human body, but also significantly increase the number and activity of NK cells in the human body.
NK cells are closely related to our health. They are important immune cells that can help us prevent and fight cancer. Protecting our NK cells is equivalent to one step closer to health!
The long-term inflammation caused by COVID-19 can only fully recover after two years!
(source:internet, reference only)