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New oncolytic virus for treatment of melanoma
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New oncolytic virus for treatment of melanoma.
The new oncolytic virus treats melanoma, the remission rate reaches 67%! Although the oncolytic virus is also a virus, it can also play its role in the treatment of other diseases.
Recently, the case of the miraculous disappearance of tumors in patients with advanced lymphoma in the UK after being infected with the new coronavirus has attracted global attention.
Researchers believe that the new coronavirus has stimulated the anti-tumor activity of the immune system.
Although you cannot expect to be infected with the new coronavirus to fight cancer, it has been proven effective to treat cancer by stimulating the human immune system.
The “oncolytic virus” uses the virus to “kill” the tumor.
Recently, a new oncolytic virus therapy performed amazingly in a clinical trial.
The total remission rate for patients with PD-1 refractory melanoma reached 67%, once again showing the great potential of immunotherapy in the field of tumor treatment.
Based on this, the US FDA also awarded the new immunotherapy PVSRIPO the title of “orphan drug” for the treatment of patients with advanced (IIB-IV) melanoma.
▌Oncolytic virus “attack virus with virus”
Oncolytic virus is a virus with oncolytic activity modified by genetic engineering technology, which can replicate in tumors and kill the “bad guy” of cancer cells. Moreover, it can release antigens after cancer cells die, activate the immune system, and help cancer patients fight tumors.
In other words, it is to attack the “poison” with the “poison” and use the virus to kill the tumor.
For decades, some viruses prefer to target cancer cells, and this feature of “letting off” healthy cells has aroused the interest of scientists.
You should know that a “good” oncolytic virus can “kill” cancer cells efficiently, but hardly harm normal cells.
In recent years, research on oncolytic viruses has made great progress and has attracted widespread attention.
In 2005, although adenovirus H101 for nasopharyngeal carcinoma was approved for marketing in China, its clinical efficacy has not yet been recognized internationally.
Until 2015, the US FDA approved the first oncolytic virus drug T-VEC (Imlygic) for the treatment of advanced melanoma. It was the first oncolytic virus treatment drug approved by the FDA.
It was subsequently approved for listing in Europe and Canada, which means the formal recognition of this technology.
Currently, there are not many oncolytic viruses on the market globally, and more clinical trials related to therapies are underway.
▌Viral immunotherapy: PVSRIPO
PVSRIPO is a new type of viral immunotherapy based on Sabin-1 polio vaccine, which can be injected directly into tumors.
The genetically modified poliovirus can infect CD155-expressing antigen-presenting cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells, to stimulate tumor-targeted immune responses.
Previously, PVSRIPO oncolytic virus therapy had obtained positive data in the phase 1 clinical trial of glioblastoma, which significantly prolonged the survival period of patients with glioblastoma, and 8 patients responded, and 2 patients’ The glioma lesions disappeared completely, achieving complete remission!
Therefore, in 2016, the FDA awarded the oncolytic virus therapy PVSRIPO the title of breakthrough therapy.
▌Clinical trials are amazing, with a remission rate of 67%!
According to the Phase 1 clinical trial data announced at the 2020 SITC annual meeting, the overall response rate (ORR) in 12 patients with PD-1 refractory melanoma was 33%.
However, the ORR among patients who received 3 injections of PVSRIPO was 67%! Among them, half of the patients achieved complete remission.
Moreover, during the one-year follow-up, 50% of the patients did not progress.
After the study, most participants (83%) can continue to receive further treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors.
These patients obtained a response after follow-up treatment, which indicates that combined immunotherapy is expected to produce a stronger response in this population.
The downside is that the number of research groups is small and it is too early to draw a clear conclusion.
To this end, the second phase clinical trial of the oncolytic virus therapy LUMINOS-102 has been launched and will be administered in the first quarter of 2021.
The study aims to study the safety and tolerability of PVSRIPO as a single agent, as well as the efficacy of combined use with PD-1 inhibitors in patients with unresectable advanced melanoma.
New oncolytic virus for treatment of melanoma
(source:internet, reference only)