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T cells clear obstacles for immune cells
T cells clear obstacles for immune cells. Excellent T cells can not only protect the human body but also treat diseases. The star T cell among the immune cells has been discovered with new skills:
- The avatar excavator digs tunnels in the tissue,
- clears obstacles for the late immune cells,
- rushes to the infected place quickly to kill germs.
Recently, researchers from Saarland University in Germany published a report in the Journal of Biophysics that some CTLs (a type of T cell) will slowly move through the extracellular matrix (the main component of tissue) to create a channel. Subsequently, other CTLs will quickly pass through these channels, presumably in order to effectively search for and eliminate target cells .
(CTL is a type of immune cell T cell, which secretes various cytokines to participate in the immune function. It has a killing effect on certain viruses, tumor cells and other antigenic substances, and forms an important line of defense for the body’s anti-virus and anti-tumor immunity with natural killer cells. .)
Under the light-sheet microscope, we can see that when the red CTL passes through the green collagen fibers, a channel is dug while pushing (the picture below).
In addition to “punch holes”, as a star of the immune system,
Scientists have discovered that T cells have these skills:
Use “super bombs” to bomb target cells to kill dangerous aliens
In April last year, a study published in Science revealed new details about how killer T cells work-these cells actually use protein bombs containing deadly chemicals. “Bomb their target intruder.
The study found that the two weapons of killer T cells, perforin and granzyme, are not directly released around target cells, but are combined with each other, assembled into a supramolecular attack particle, and released on the cell membrane of the target cell. In layman’s terms, killer T cells combine perforin and granzyme to turn them into “bombs” and launch them on the target to “blow up” them.
Killer T cells leave “bombs” on the surface of target cells
“Take the courage”, temper yourself to eliminate cancer cells!
As cancer cells that everyone calls for, the biggest goal in this life is to cause humans to suffer. In order to resist the pursuit of immune cells, they will use some cunning methods in addition to multiplying cancer cells. For example, cancer cells sometimes secrete PD-L1 protein to act as a “good citizen certificate”, tricking T cells to survive. In order to survive, cancer cells are really racking their brains and doing everything they can!
But the magic is one foot high and the road high, and in the face of unbridled deception and attack by cancer cells, immune cells will not sit still.
In 2019, scientists from the National Cancer Institute discovered that while tumors use high concentrations of potassium ions to suppress the effect of T cells in their “turf” (tumor microenvironment), they never expected that this suppression would greatly enhance T The stem cell-like ability (stem) of cells makes them have stronger endurance, transplant survival rate, self-renewal ability and pluripotency .
It has to be said that cancer cells are really self-inflicted this time. They originally wanted to suppress T cells with potassium ions, but I didn’t expect that T cells could even try their best and become stronger under strong pressure.
Transformed by technology to transform into CAR-T cells to fight cancer cells
What is exciting is that in addition to these killing skills of its own, T cells have also been successfully converted into anti-cancer Saint CAR-T cells by scientists, helping many cancer patients to get rid of the entanglement of diseases.
The process of T cell becoming CAR-T cell:
First, researchers will perform genetic testing on patients, analyze the information characteristics of tumor cells in the patient, and then collect blood to extract T cells from it.
Next, the researchers used genetic technology to install the positioning and navigation device CAR on the T cells, which is the chimeric antigen receptor, and upgrade the T cells to “super immune fighters” CAR-T cells.
This process is equivalent to telling T cells what are the characteristics of cunning tumor cells and what they look like to improve the recognition ability of T cells. When CAR-T cells are cultured in vitro and reach a sufficient number, the researchers will return them through the vein. Infused into the patient’s body. A patient generally needs billions or even tens of billions of CAR-T cells.
T cells have been upgraded through navigation and their attack power has also been upgraded. Coupled with a larger number of expanded CAR-T cells, CAR-T cells can more accurately and effectively target cancer cells in the human body and help patients recover.
Excellent T cells can not only protect the human body but also treat diseases. However, although immune cells are powerful, they have their own life span just like humans, and they will be weakened. After aging, immune cells can no longer protect the body against foreign pathogens. In order for immune cells to maintain long-lasting combat effectiveness, the active immune cells in the body can be stored, and then returned to the body when needed in the future. In case, it can help the body restore immunity and fight disease.
(source:internet, reference only)