January 16, 2022

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Knowledge about colorectal cancer and how to prevent it

Knowledge about colorectal cancer and how to prevent it

 

Knowledge about colorectal cancer and how to prevent it.   Healthy lifestyle and reasonable diet are one of the important reasons for the decline in the incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer.

Knowledge about colorectal cancer and how to prevent it
Colorectal cancer is the general term for colon cancer and rectal cancer. It refers to the malignant lesions of the large intestine mucosal epithelium under the action of environmental factors such as eating habits or genetic factors and other carcinogenic factors. It is one of the most common malignant tumors of the digestive tract.

In recent years, the incidence of colorectal cancer has been increasing in many countries. The first reason for this is the change in diet. People eat a high-fat, high-protein, and high-calorie diet; second, people have less exercise and more obesity.


How to prevent colorectal cancer?

The occurrence of colorectal cancer is a multi-factor and multi-step process, and its risk factors can be divided into three categories-health background, genetic background and environmental background. Prevention is divided into three levels of prevention.

Primary prevention

It is the prevention of the cause before the tumor occurs: elimination or reduction of the exposure of the colorectal mucosa to carcinogens, including dietary intervention, chemoprevention and treatment of precancerous lesions. Diet intervention includes weight control, appropriate exercise, diet structure, low-fat diet, attention to dietary balance, intake of high-fiber foods, avoiding excessive calorie intake, and quitting smoking and drinking. Chemical intervention refers to the oral administration of certain drugs under the guidance of a doctor to prevent the formation of tumors or polyps. At the same time, it is necessary to actively deal with precancerous lesions such as adenomatous polyps and ulcerative colitis.

Secondary prevention

It is to screen for colorectal cancer to realize early diagnosis and early treatment. Colorectal cancer screening is currently recommended for adults over the age of 50 to be screened regularly. For high-risk groups of colorectal cancer, experts recommend starting screening at the age of 40 or even earlier.

High-risk groups of colorectal cancer include:

(1) Patients with a family history of colorectal cancer;

(2) Members with family history of familial adenomatous polyposis and hereditary non-polyposis colorectal;

(3) Schistosomiasis enteritis;

(4) Chronic ulcerative colitis;

(5) Melanosis of the large intestine caused by long-term constipation after taking laxatives;

(6) Has suffered from colorectal cancer;

(7) Some benign adenomatous polyps of the large intestine.

Screening methods include stool occult blood test and stool immunochemical test, stool DNA screening, digital rectal examination, colonoscopy, etc. Among them, colonoscopy is currently the most reliable screening method, and colonoscopy can also perform minimally invasive treatment of intestinal polyps and other lesions to avoid the occurrence of colorectal cancer. Colonoscopy can now be performed in a painless manner, and everyone can successfully complete the examination after a good night’s sleep.

Tertiary prevention

It is to screen for colorectal cancer to realize early diagnosis and early treatment. Colorectal cancer screening is currently recommended for adults over the age of 50 to be screened regularly. For high-risk groups of colorectal cancer, experts recommend starting screening at the age of 40 or even earlier.

 


What are the symptoms of colorectal cancer

In the early stage of the onset of colorectal cancer, there are generally no symptoms, or the symptoms are not obvious, only feeling abdominal discomfort, indigestion, stool examination, etc. As the cancer develops, symptoms gradually appear, which can be manifested as one or more of the following symptoms. If friends with these symptoms are found, it is best to go to the hospital to rule out colorectal cancer.

01 Changes in bowel habits, such as increased frequency of bowel movements or diarrhea, incomplete bowel movements, difficulty in defecation, or constipation

02 Black stools or mucous blood stools; sometimes patients will mistake colorectal cancer blood stools for hemorrhoids, thus delaying treatment

03 Thinning stool

04 Abdominal pain and bloating

05 Abdominal mass

06 When the tumor develops to the middle and late stages, the patient will also have systemic manifestations such as fatigue, weight loss, anemia, and low fever.

Patients with the above symptoms are best to go to the hospital to rule out the possibility of colorectal cancer.

 



Key points!

Studies have found that a healthy lifestyle and reasonable diet are one of the important reasons for the decline in the incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer. Early screening is the most important means in the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer. The development of diagnosis and treatment technology is also an important reason for the decline in the mortality rate of colorectal cancer.

 

(source:internet, reference only)


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