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This article clarifies what cytokines, PRP, and exosomes are all about
This article clarifies what cytokines, PRP, and exosomes are all about. Simply injecting stem cells has no filling effect unless combined with biological materials.
Cell-related medical beauty technology/products
Here, I mainly talk about three possible products: one is commercial cytokines, the other is autologous PRP technology, and the third is stem cell derivatives.
Cytokine (CK): refers to the low molecular weight soluble protein produced by a variety of cells, which has various functions such as regulating innate immunity and adaptive immunity, hematogenesis, cell growth, and repairing damaged tissues.
Cytokines can be divided into interleukins, interferons, tumor necrosis factor superfamily, colony stimulating factors, chemokines, growth factors and so on.
The cytokines we are talking about today are mainly various recombinant growth factors, which are used under the diagnosis and guidance of regular hospital doctors.
Applications: Skin burns, ulcers, wound repair of various skin diseases.
2. PRP (not stem cells, can be combined with stem cells)
PRP (Platelet-rich plasma, platelet-rich plasma) technology is listed as a baby needle and vampire therapy in many medical and aesthetic institutions, but its essence is PRP
PRP can be used for local injection of the face and knee joints and can improve local conditions. However, it is undoubtedly an exaggeration to guarantee the anti-aging effect or therapeutic effect for 5-10 years with one shot of PRP, and one shot will not return to the previous 18 years. A correct understanding and a correct view can make the right choice. Reducing risks and increasing returns are what we want to pursue.
3. Stem cell derivatives
Stem cell derivatives (name: stem cell culture supernatant, stem cell lysate, stem cell exosomes) are derived from various sources of mesenchymal stem cells or stem cells from other tissues (such as neural stem cells, skin stem cells, etc.) expanded and cultured in vitro Obtained highly active cytokines, ingredients include: KGF, EGF, bFGF, NGF, HGF, VEGF, IL-6, G-CSF, TGF-β, PDGF, EPO, SDF-1, etc., as well as multiple activities Peptides, various enzymes, hyaluronic acid, nucleic acids and other ingredients.
Powerful MSC paracrine effect (Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews)
- Stem cell supernatant: The original untreated or simply treated culture fluid that is rich in a variety of cytokines produced during the culturing of stem cells, and is often used for smearing for external use.
- Stem cell lysate: Break the stem cells by ultrasound and other methods to release the soluble protein and other soluble contents in the cells, which may be used for smears or microneedles.
- Stem cell exosomes: Exosomes are a type of extracellular vesicles with a complete membrane structure, which are mainly responsible for material transportation and information transmission between cells, with a diameter of 30-150nm. As the name implies, the exosomes secreted by stem cells are called stem cell exosomes.
Possible product use
- Used for wound healing. Indications include diabetic foot, burns and scalds.
- Used in skin care and beauty. Such as blemishes and wrinkles.
Several questions worth thinking about
As we all know, mesenchymal stem cells have a very important feature, that is, they have powerful paracrine functions. Their secretions are rich in a variety of growth factors and signal molecules, which can activate neighboring cells or tissues to produce corresponding biological effects. The role of stem cell derivatives is also based on this.
With continuous clinical exploration, the application value of stem cell derivatives with various biological effects has gradually evolved from being recognized to being recognized. At present, stem cell derivatives have great potential application value in burns and scalds, difficult-to-heal ulcers and postoperative wound repair. In Japan and South Korea, there have been many similar cosmetics, or cosmetics with the concept of stem cells. However, as technicians, we should have our own attitude. The following issues are worth thinking about:
1) The composition of the stem cell supernatant. The composition of the original untreated supernatant is very complex, including various cytokines secreted by stem cells, exosomes, metabolites, cell debris, and most of them are stem cell culture media that are not utilized by cells. It is a variety of cytokines and exosomes secreted by stem cells that really work, but their content is very low. If we want to explore how to further improve the therapeutic effect, we must face a problem of removing harmful ingredients and retaining beneficial ingredients. Therefore, how to separate and purify the cell supernatant should be the first consideration.
2) The source of stem cell supernatant. The secretion factors of stem cells from different tissues are slightly different, so the effect of supernatant from different sources on the skin should also be slightly different, such as adipose tissue source, umbilical cord tissue source, skin tissue source and so on. Therefore, how to subdivide the effects of different tissue-derived stem cell supernatants on the skin and whether it is tissue-specific requires further research.
3) The activity of stem cell supernatant. The stem cell supernatant is mainly cytokines and exosomes. If there is no suitable storage method, the active ingredients are easily degraded at room temperature. So how to add these cytokines to skin care products, not only does not degrade, but also plays a role to solve the problem.
The application of stem cell exosomes has been a particularly hot field in the past two years.
At present, Japan and South Korea claim that skin care products with stem cell extract added can be stored for a long time if they are mass-produced and stored at room temperature. Then we have to think: Is it really adding stem cell-related secretions? Or how much effect can it have after adding it? Some people say that personal experience is really effective. It is suspected that it has nothing to do with stem cells, but it can make a lot of money through stem cell gimmicks.
Products that will “grow meat” on their own
Now back to the previous question: what is going on after the injection can “grow meat”.
If a product is used, it can “grow meat” after injection. First of all, we have to understand what the “meat” is here. Obviously, it is not fat, but thickened dermal tissue. If you want to talk about what you use to achieve sustained growth, it is most likely to be injected with growth factors, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and the like, and it is a growth factor with a higher concentration. These growth factors are not allowed to be injected directly into the dermis, but many institutions often use such ingredients in order to achieve the customer’s “one-and-for-all” effect expectations.
The possible serious consequence is that growth factors will stimulate the continuous proliferation and division of dermal tissue cells. However, this proliferation is not controllable, and it often grows uncontrollably to abnormal locations and damages the original tissues. This is the so-called “long meat”. If you have some skin disorders, your skin cells will have problems. At this time, it is very risky and uncontrollable to encounter growth factors to increase growth.
Abuse of growth factors may cause uncontrollable skin growth
Abuse of growth factors may cause uncontrollable skin growth and form “tumor”-like nodules. It is recommended that you understand and judge correctly, and use it under the diagnosis and guidance of doctors in regular hospitals.
What to pay attention to when developing stem cell derivatives
Finally, let’s talk about stem cell derivatives. Stem cell technology currently has extensive attention and potential application value in the fields of cosmetic plastic surgery, burns and scalds, and diabetic feet. Although stem cell derivatives are not as widely used and applied as stem cells, they can be used to the fullest if they can give full play to their characteristics.
The secretion of exosomes or cytokines is like laying an egg
For stem cell derivatives to be widely used clinically, they must be safe, effective, uniform and stable. Stem cell derivatives are derived from stem cells. At least it is necessary to ensure the safety of the stem cell preparation process, standardize the stem cell preparation procedure, and ensure the uniformity and stability of the raw materials. Including the requirements of stem cell donors, the selection of reagents and consumables, especially the selection of culture media, avoid the use of serum as much as possible. Whether it is of human or animal origin, try to use products that have been approved by the country for clinical application. For a qualified stem cell derivative, the quality control must meet the quality control conditions of stem cell preparations
Meet the most basic safety requirements, and then start to optimize the conditions.
1) The influence of the cultivation system. Such as 2D culture and 3D culture, normal culture and hypoxic culture.
2) The influence of different organizational sources. Such as umbilical cord source, fat source, amniotic membrane source, skin source, etc.? Whether its secreted cytokine profile is tissue-specific, and what are the similarities and differences in treatment are all worthy of further study.
3) The influence of different cell generations. For example, in different generations of stem cell culture, whether the types, concentrations and proportions of cytokines secreted have changed, which is also worth studying.
4) Interaction between growth factor groups. This is also an urgent need to explore. It should gradually develop from the study of a single growth factor to the exploration of the interaction between multiple growth factors.
The road is long and long, I will search up and down!
In fact, the purpose of this article is to let everyone understand some of the most basic knowledge of stem cell derivatives, the current problems and the directions that need to be studied.
Finally, we must knock on the blackboard.
Simply injecting stem cells has no filling effect unless combined with biological materials.
Stem cells and stem cell derivatives are not a one-time project or method in terms of beauty and skin care.
Don’t think that if the merchants say that they are stem cell products, they must consider them to be stem cell products. Many merchants just use stem cell gimmicks, and they may actually use other ingredients.
Facing the endless beauty traps on the market with “stem cell gimmicks”, those who love beauty must keep their eyes open. Regardless of stem cells or stem cell derivatives, it is a technology that countless people dream of, and hope that it can enter clinical applications as soon as possible.
The future is bright and tortuous, and everything awaits technological development.
his article clarifies what cytokines PRP and exosomes are all about
his article clarifies what cytokines PRP and exosomes are all about
(source:internet, reference only)