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High incidence of cancer and early tumor screening
High incidence of cancer and early tumor screening. About 20% people in the world will get cancer in their lifetime. But “1/3 cancer can be prevented, 1/3 cancer can be treated, and 1/3 cancer can be cured”, the initiative to prevent and treat cancer can be in the hands of each of us. Today we will tell you what cancer screening is and put together a screening list for high-risk groups.
What is cancer screening?
Cancer screening refers to a physical examination before symptoms occur in order to detect a certain disease. If the subject finds early cancer or precancerous lesions, early intervention can be carried out to achieve the best treatment effect. Cancer screening is used in clinical practice and often has the following advantages: effectiveness and specificity, relatively sensitive detection of certain cancers and precancerous lesions; safety, no obvious side effects; operability, economic and convenient, can be used Screening of large populations. On this basis, it also needs the support of several years of research data, how to interpret screening results, formulate screening frequency, and treatment methods.
Before the physical examination, professional doctors will carefully inquire about the examinee’s physical condition, living habits, past medical history and family genetic history, etc., and then select the corresponding examination items according to the examinee’s specific conditions. Common screening items mainly include: routine Project, imaging diagnosis, endoscopy, tumor marker examination, etc.
High incidence of cancer in the whole population
High-risk groups: over 50 years old, smoking ≥30 pack years or over 45 years old, smoking ≥20 pack years; long-term passive smokers (basically daily exposure, more than 20 years); occupational exposure to asbestos, beryllium, uranium, radon, etc. History; history of other lung diseases, bronchiectasis, tuberculosis, chronic obstructive lung, or chronic pulmonary fibrosis; history of malignant tumors or family history of lung cancer.
Screening method: The low-dose spiral CTX line on the chest of high-risk groups once a year has a lower dose, less damage to the human body, and sufficient resolution.
High-risk population: 40-69 years old; people with hepatitis B, hepatitis C, or hepatitis B, hepatitis C viruses; people with cirrhosis caused by schistosomiasis, alcoholic cirrhosis, etc.; people with a family history of liver cancer; patients with drug-induced liver injury.
Screening method: Men over 35 years old and women over 45 years old should be screened every 6 months. Perform a combined serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and liver B-ultrasound examination. If abnormalities are found, further enhanced CT examinations should be performed.
High-risk population: 45-74 years old; family history, including other malignant tumors, breast cancer, and colorectal cancer; people who have had intestinal polyps or familial bowel disease; history of chronic appendicitis or appendectomy; history of chronic biliary disease or History of cholecystectomy; symptoms such as abdominal pain and blood in the stool.
Screening method: starting at the age of 45, once every 5 years, you can choose digital anal examination, fecal occult blood or colonoscopy.
High-risk population: 45 years of age or older; long-term living in areas with high incidence of gastric cancer; Helicobacter pylori infection; chronic atrophic gastritis, gastric ulcer, gastric polyps, hypertrophic gastritis, pernicious anemia, moderate dysplasia and other gastric precancerous diseases Patients who have bad lifestyle habits that may cause gastric cancer, often smoke, drink alcohol, and have a high-salt diet; have a family history of gastric cancer.
Screening method: The general population starts at the age of 40, and it is recommended to have a fine magnifying gastroscopy every 5 years. This is the gold standard for early gastric cancer screening. High-risk groups with a family history of gastric cancer should undergo gastroscopy once every two years according to the doctor’s recommendation.
High incidence of cancer in women
High-risk population: 45 years of age or older; first-degree relatives who had breast cancer before the age of 50; those with a history of contralateral breast cancer or confirmed by breast biopsy as severe atypical hyperplasia or intra-line papillomatosis; those with breast cancer Pathological genetic mutations.
Screening method: 5-7 days after the end of menstruation, breast self-examination can be performed. After the age of 45, a color Doppler ultrasound examination will be performed every 1 to 2 years, and a high-risk group can have a mammography examination every 1 to 2 years.
High-risk population: a history of head and neck radiation exposure or exposure to radiation dust in childhood; head and neck radiotherapy for other diseases; past or family history of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), medullary thyroid cancer, etc.; thyroid nodules It is larger than 1 cm, and the nodules grow rapidly, growing to more than 1 cm in half a year; the intake of iodine is too low or too high.
Screening method: High-risk groups are recommended to have a physical examination and neck ultrasound examination every six months to a year.
High-risk population: married women or women with a history of sexual life for 3 years; have had HPV infection, weakened immune function, have a history of exposure to intrauterine diethylstilbestrol, or have had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or 3, or cervical adenocarcinoma in situ , Women who have received treatment for cervical invasive cancer.
Screening method: Cervical cytology check every 3 years, or HPV screening every 5 years; if the cytology and HPV screening are negative, it can be changed to once every 5 years; more than 65 years old and multiple times in the past All examinations are negative and no screening is required; if a person has been diagnosed with a history of high-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, the screening will continue for another 20 years, and the frequency of screening depends on the condition.
High incidence of cancer in men
High-risk population: 40-69 years old; unhealthy lifestyle habits such as preference for pickled and smoked food, preference for hot food, leftovers; suffering from upper gastrointestinal diseases such as reflux esophagitis; family history of esophageal cancer ; Long-term living in a high-risk area of esophageal cancer.
Screening method: Endoscopy every 1-3 years.
High-risk groups: over 50 years old; long-term chronic prostatitis; family history of prostate cancer.
Screening methods: digital rectal examination, which can be performed once a year; ultrasound examination; high-risk groups can be tested for prostate antigen (PSA) every two years.
In fact, cancer is not terrible, as long as we choose the appropriate method to screen early and find it early
(source:internet, reference only)