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Science: How does phenazine enhance its access to phosphorus?
Science: How does phenazine enhance its access to phosphorus? How does phenazine ( a special antibiotic produced by bacteria) enhance its access to phosphorus?
For many years, scientists have known that when there is competition between food and space, a certain line of bacteria will produce molecules that are harmful to other bacteria; recently, a research report published in the international journal Science, from the California Institute of Technology and other institutions Scientists have discovered through research that these so-called antibiotics have another use, that is, when resources are scarce, they can help bacteria obtain necessary nutrients.
In the article, the researchers focused on the bacterial species of the Pseudomonas genus, and also studied the phenazines produced by them. The researcher Newman’s laboratory studied phenazines and their chemical and biological properties. Researched Jin for 20 years. Researcher McRose said that now we know that the “antibiotics” (phenazines) produced by these pseudomonas can kill competitors, but what we want to answer is whether the phenazines produced by organisms have other functions or benefits?
Image Credit: Darcy McRose
Although the researcher Newman’s laboratory has determined the multiple roles of these molecules for many years, Pseudomonas bacteria do not always produce phenazines, so the researchers first studied the conditions under which these microorganisms produce phenazines. The results It was found that when the available phosphorus level of Pseudomonas in its environment is limited, it will produce phenazine; phosphorus is a nutrient necessary for all life to maintain the function of the body, and it often exists in a variety of chemical forms ; When it exists in a biologically usable form, it is considered to be bioavailable. For example, wheat cannot be eaten by humans as food, but it can be baked into bread in the form of flour. Digested by the body; similarly, the phosphorus attached to the surface of iron ore is also difficult to reach by bacteria, and it needs to be released first.
Researcher McRose wants to know whether there is a correlation between the lack of bioavailable phosphorus and the production of phenazine. Previously, researchers found that phenazine can mediate special chemical reactions to dissolve iron oxides in the soil; researcher McRose It is pointed out that this process may release the adsorbed phosphorus element, thereby making it a usable form of phosphorus; in the experiment, the researchers used iron oxide that adsorbs phosphorus element and natural deposits containing phosphorus element combined with iron oxide , Followed by the addition of phenazine, as a result, an increase in the level of biologically available phosphorus was observed.
The researchers then used a kind of pseudomonas that could not produce phenazines through genetic modification to conduct experiments. They cultivated these mutant microorganisms in an environment where phosphorus only combined with iron minerals, and grew in the same environment. Comparison of non-mutant pseudomonas in Pseudomonas; it turned out that normal bacteria can grow and stock. This may be because it can use phenazine to obtain phosphorus from iron minerals. However, it cannot produce phenazine mutants. However, the monospores cannot grow well. Phosphorus is not only required by Pseudomonas, it is a nutrient necessary for the survival of all organisms, including crops. Researchers say that they understand microorganisms such as Pseudomonas and various forms of phosphorus. The connection between the two, and the key role that microorganisms play in the production of usable phosphorus, are important for making sustainable decisions, such as the use of fertilizers.
Researcher Newman said that this study combines our observations of the time when certain antibiotics are produced and our understanding of the chemical reactions they produce. In addition, this study has also improved scientists’ understanding of the micro-relationships that appear in the soil of plant roots. It is very exciting to uncover the key role these compounds play in the acquisition of macronutrients. In the future, researchers hope to use relevant research results to explore sustainable strategies to promote the bioavailability of phosphorus in farmland.
(source:internet, reference only)