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Why reactive oxygen species (ROS) is important in cancer treatment?
Why reactive oxygen species (ROS) is important in cancer treatment? This review emphasizes the occurrence of ROS through various pathways in cells and its role in cancer treatment.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a highly reactive chemical substance containing oxygen free radicals. Hypochlorous acid, peroxides, superoxides, singlet oxygen, alpha-oxygen, and hydroxyl radicals are the main examples of ROS. People from all walks of life are familiar with them because they are used in many household and industrial processes.
ROS is naturally produced in various biochemical reactions in organelles such as endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and peroxisomes. ROS is also a by-product of normal oxygen metabolism. Many factors such as heavy metals, tobacco, smoke, drugs, foreign organisms, pollutants and radiation can induce the production of ROS.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peroxisome#:~:text=A%20peroxisome%20(IPA%3A%20%5Bp%C9%9B%C9%9C%CB%88%C9%B9%C9%92ks%C9%AA%CB%8Cso%CA%8Am,O2)%20is%20then%20formed.
From various experimental studies, it has been reported that ROS can be used as a tumor suppressor as well as a tumor promoter. Elevated ROS levels can inhibit tumor growth by continuously increasing cell cycle inhibition. Elevated ROS levels can induce apoptosis through endogenous and exogenous pathways.
ROS is considered to be a tumor-inhibiting drug, because ROS is produced due to the use of most chemotherapeutic drugs to activate cell death. The cytotoxic effect of ROS promotes cell apoptosis, but at higher levels, ROS can cause malignant tumors, leading to uncontrolled cell death of cancer cells.
However, certain types of ROS can affect various activities including cell proliferation at the cellular level. This review recently published in the journal “Anticancer Medicinal Chemistry” explains the significance of ROS in cancer treatment.
Scientific reports indicate that ROS may promote cell proliferation or cell death, depending on the strength or location of oxidative rupture and the activity of the antioxidant system. The ability of ROS to stimulate cell growth or cell death mainly depends on the intensity or duration of redox signals and the defense mechanism of antioxidants.
Existing anti-cancer drugs have harmful effects on some normal cells activated by ROS. These species exert reverse cellular effects by promoting cell proliferation and tumor progression or cell death. ROS is a “double-edged sword”. It is not only a disease inducer or maintenance agent, but also a therapeutic weapon for cancer cells.
The increase of ROS levels in mitochondria can induce cell proliferation, cell survival, cell migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Ras-ERK activation.
In view of these intracellular effects, various reactive oxygen species can be used to treat different types of cancer cells. New anticancer drug treatment methods are based on the formation of ROS or the regulation of antioxidant mechanisms.
By using molecular signals to distinguish normal cells from cancer cells, researchers can target cancer cells in the body to destroy them.
Although the current ROS signaling technology is in cancer biology, the duality of ROS is still a huge challenge for cancer treatment against ROS.
Understanding the nature of ROS as the main factor in the signaling pathway may provide clinical hope for safer and more effective pharmacological anti-cancer interventions in the future.
(source:internet, reference only)