June 16, 2024

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mRNA COVID-19 vaccine produces the strong antibody response to HIV

The mRNA COVID-19 vaccine produces the strong antibody response to HIV-infected people after 2 doses

mRNA COVID-19 vaccine produces the strong antibody response to HIV.   Two studies published in the Journal of AIDS and Clinical Infectious Diseases showed that the anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines of Pfizer and Moderna produced strong antibody responses in HIV-infected persons, and similar responses in HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected persons. Antibodies and cellular immune response.

Although in some countries, people with HIV have been given priority to vaccinate SARS-CoV-2, it is still unclear whether the immunosuppression caused by HIV will reduce the vaccine response.

Earlier this year, two research teams reported that there was no difference in the immune response to the Oxford/Astra Zeneca SARS-CoV-2 vaccine between people infected with HIV and people who were not infected.

The new report covers vaccines from Pfizer and Moderna. They are all based on messenger RNA technology, which inserts messenger RNA into muscle cells. These cells produce the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein sequence, which triggers the body’s immune response. Although there is no reason to believe that messenger RNA vaccines are less effective for HIV-infected people, there is a lack of evidence from fully vaccinated people.

Two independent research teams at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore observed the response of Pfizer and Moderna’s SARS-CoV-2 vaccines to people infected with HIV.

One group observed the changes in the antibody response of 5 HIV-infected persons vaccinated with Pfizer and 9 HIV-infected persons vaccinated with Moderna vaccine after the first and second doses of the vaccine. The average age of the study participants was 62 years old. Except for one, the rest were men. 12 of the 14 were white. All participants had received antiretroviral therapy for at least 6 months. One of them detected a viral load of 35 copies/ml (CD4 count greater than 500), and the other two had a CD4 count of less than 200.

Blood samples were collected for antibody testing 21 days after the first vaccination (10 participants) and 29 days after the second vaccination (all 14 participants). It is positive when the antibody titer is 0.8 u/ml or above. The upper limit of the Roche method to determine the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain antibody is 250 u/ml. In the test tube study, the antibody titer of 15-133u/ml is related to the virus neutralization activity.

The median antibody titer of study participants after the first vaccination was 76 u/ml. After the second vaccination, with the exception of one human antibody titer exceeding 250u/ml, the other human antibody titer was 236u/ml. The researchers say the antibody response is similar to that seen in HIV-negative people and is much better than that seen in people with immunodeficiency or those receiving cancer treatments that affect lymphocyte production.

Almost all participants reported pain at the injection site after each vaccination. Systemic symptoms, such as fatigue, are common and occur in about 60%-70% of participants. Only one reaction was considered serious (a participant had a headache after the second vaccination).

Another research team at Johns Hopkins University studied antibodies and cellular immune responses. Antibodies are essential to prevent infection. In addition to supporting the antibody response, the cellular immune response to SARS-CoV-2 seems to be the key to preventing serious diseases.

They compared the antibody and cellular immune responses of 12 HIV carriers and 17 HIV-negative people within 7 to 17 days after the second vaccination. Except for one person living with HIV, everyone else is black, and seven women are receiving antiretroviral treatment. CD4 cell counts in all patients were greater than 600, 3 patients had low-level viremia (20 to 70 copies/ml), and the rest were undetectable (below 20 copies/ml).

Compared with HIV-negative people, HIV carriers’ antibody titers did not decrease significantly, and their neutralizing antibody levels did not decrease. Neutralizing antibodies were the first Alpha, Beta, and Beta detected in the United Kingdom, South Africa, and Brazil, respectively. Gamma variant. This study did not examine the response to the Delta variant, which is currently the main variant in the UK.

Although the median age of HIV carriers is 52 and the median age of HIV-negatives is 41 years, there is no difference in the intensity and breadth of the cellular immune response between HIV carriers and HIV-negatives. However, the authors of this study said that more vaccine response studies in people with low CD4 cell counts are needed to confirm that people with low CD4 cell counts respond to the vaccine with HIV-infected people with high CD4 cell counts. Just as good.

(source:internet, reference only)

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