October 4, 2022

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The new vaccine effectively prevents SARS-CoV-2 intranasal infection

 

The new vaccine effectively prevents SARS-CoV-2 intranasal infection. 

Scientists have developed a new vaccine strategy that can effectively prevent SARS-CoV-2 intranasal infection

The emergency vaccine is effective in the treatment of COVID-19, but the preventive effect induced by the vaccine is still not ideal for the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 nasal infection.

 

Recently, in a research report titled “Nasal prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection by intranasal influenza-based boost vaccination in mouse models” published in the international journal EbioMedicine , scientists from the University of Hong Kong and other institutions conducted research through research. A comprehensive study identified an effective vaccine strategy to prevent SARS-CoV-2 nasal infection.


Studies have shown that the combined strategy of intramuscular injection of PD-1 based receptor binding domain DNA vaccine (PD1-RBD-DNA) and nasal injection of live vaccine based on attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV-HK68-RBD) Or it can induce the strongest mucosal broad-spectrum neutralizing antibodies and lung resident memory CD8 T cells, which may be able to effectively prevent the nasal infection challenge of live SARS-CoV-2 in two animal models.


Today, the COVID-19 pandemic has caused more than 275 million infections worldwide, and there have been 5.36 million deaths so far.

However, few vaccines approved for emergency use can induce sufficient mucosal protection. To prevent SARS-CoV-2 nasal infection.

Although the current vaccination has greatly reduced the hospitalization rate, the severity of the disease, and the number of deaths, these vaccines are not effective in preventing the spread of SARS-CoV-2 through the respiratory tract, which may bring the control of the pandemic.

A huge challenge; with the continuous emergence of SARS-CoV-2 mutants, including the rapid spread of Omicron mutant strains with immune escape, there is an urgent need for researchers to develop an effective vaccine strategy to block or Reduce the nasal transmission of SARS-CoV-2.


In this study, the researchers stated that compared with the current COVID-19 vaccine strategy, the systemic and mucosal antibodies IgA/IgG and the lung resident multifunctional memory CD8 T cells are mainly induced by the heterogeneous combination strategy.

When the two vaccinated mice are challenged in the memory stage (that is, 35 days after the second vaccination), in addition to producing consistent protection in the lungs, the body is mainly through heterologous A combination of sex methods to achieve a powerful preventive function against SARS-CoV-2 infection in the turbinates.

The antibodies induced by the new protocol can also cross-neutralize a variety of pandemic mutant strains of concern, including α, β and delta mutant strains; the results of this article provide a proof of concept, that is, the strong mucosal immunity induced by the vaccine Perhaps it is a necessary condition to prevent SARS-CoV-2 nasal infection, which is of great significance for ending the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

 


Researcher Professor Yuen Kwok-yung said that the clinical development of the two vaccines that we are conducting is still the top priority to eliminate the uncontrolled spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. We are currently conducting human clinical trials on influenza-based nasal spray and DNA vaccines.

The biggest challenge to COVID-19 vaccine development is that there are currently no vaccine production plants in Hong Kong, which may indirectly delay the transformation of scientific discoveries into clinical applications.

Now when researchers develop Omicron targeting for clinical trials They also face the same challenge after the sex DNA vaccine.

 


Researchers believe that the use of nasal spray vaccine to establish protection in the upper respiratory tract is a key strategy to reduce SARS-CoV-2 infection and spread, and is very important for the ultimate control of the COVID-19 pandemic.

In summary, the results of this article show that the use of nasal cavity An enhanced vaccine based on the internal influenza vaccine may be able to induce the body’s mucosal and systemic immunity, thereby effectively preventing the infection and spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the upper and lower respiratory tracts .

 

 

 

 

 


Reference:
DOI:10.1016/j.ebiom.2021.103762

The new vaccine effectively prevents SARS-CoV-2 intranasal infection

(source:internet, reference only)


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