July 23, 2024

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Electromagnetic radiation of cellphones can affect sleep and gene expression

Electromagnetic radiation of cellphones can affect sleep and gene expression



 

Electromagnetic radiation of cellphones can affect sleep and gene expression.

Researchers found that long-term exposure to specific electromagnetic radiation such as mobile phones can affect sleep and gene expression in oligodendrocytes. 

The rapid development of wireless electronic devices has drawn attention to the harmful effects of leaked electromagnetic radiation on human health.

Although a large number of studies have been conducted to explore the biological effects of electromagnetic radiation, no clear conclusions have been drawn on the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on oligodendrocytes.


On July 5, 2023,  researchers from West Lake University published online in the International Journal of Molecular Sciences entitled ” Expression and Activity of the Transcription Factor CCAAT/Enhancer-Binding Protein β (C/EBPβ) Is Regulated by Specific Pulse-Modulated Radio Frequencies in Oligodendroglial Cells ” research paper, the study in continuous wave (CW-RF) or pulse modulation wave (PW-RF, 50 Hz pulse frequency) mode, oligodendrocytes and other three types of brain cells Exposure to 2.4 GHz EMR for 6 or 48 hours.

 

The expression of C/EBPβ and its related genes were detected by RNA sequencing, RT-qPCR and Western blot. The expression levels of C/EBPβinteracting proteins were detected by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) .

The results showed that PW-RF EMR significantly increased C/EBPβ mRNA levels in oligodendrocytes but not in other cell types.

In addition, the expressions of three subtypes of C/EBPβ, several interacting proteins and target genes were significantly changed after PW-RF treatment for 6 h, but there was no significant change after CW-RF treatment for 6 h.

Taken together, our findings demonstrate that radiofrequency EMR modulates C/EBPβ expression and function in a waveform- and cell-type-dependent manner.

 

In addition, on April 29, 2023, the team of Shi Yigong of West Lake University published a research paper entitled ” Analysis of electromagnetic response of cells and lipid membranes using a model-free method ” in Bioelectrochemistry online , which developed a model-free method method for analyzing the electromagnetic response of cells and lipid membranes.

The study measured the permittivity of cells and lipid membranes in the EMR frequency range from 20 Hz to 4.35 × 10 10 Hz.

 

To identify EMR frequencies exhibiting physically intuitive permittivity signatures, a model-free approach was developed that relies on a potassium chloride reference solution with a direct current (DC) conductivity equal to that of the sample of interest.

The dielectric constant reflects the ability to store energy, showing a characteristic peak at 10 5 -10 6 Hz.

The dielectric loss factor, which represents EMR absorption, is significantly enhanced at 10 7 -10 9 Hz. Fine features are affected by the size and composition of these membrane structures .

Mechanical damage will result in the elimination of these features. Energy storage at 10 5 -10 6 Hz and enhanced energy absorption at 10 7 -10 9 Hz may affect certain membrane activities related to cellular function .

 

On August 3, 2021, Shi Yigong’s team from Tsinghua University/West Lake University published a research paper entitled ” Specific electromagnetic radiation in the wireless signal range increases wakefulness in mice ” online in PNAS , which reported the effect of wireless range EMR on mice Effects on sleep .

Prolonged exposure to 2.4-GHz EMR modulated by 100-Hz square pulses at non-thermal output levels resulted in a significant increase in wakefulness in mice.

These mice displayed corresponding decreases in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) time.

 

In contrast, prolonged exposure to unmodulated 2.4 GHz EMR at the same time-averaged output level had little effect on sleep in mice.

These observations identify altered sleep architecture in mice as a specific physiological response to long-term wireless range EMR exposure ( click to read ).

 

Electromagnetic radiation of cellphones can affect sleep and gene expression

 

 

An increasing number of modern electronic devices use different electromagnetic wavelengths, which has raised concerns about the hazards of electromagnetic radiation to human health. RF EMR (ranging from 3kHz to 300GHz) covers the wavelength of mobile phones, Bluetooth and Wi-Fi devices (about 2.4GHz).

The potential health risks of these wireless devices are unknown, presenting challenges to medicine and society.

Extensive studies have used various systems to investigate the effects of EMR at the cellular, animal, and epidemiological levels, yet the relationship between EMR and health remains highly controversial.

 

In the central nervous system (CNS), neurons are the most characteristic cells, mainly responsible for information transmission.

The speed and efficiency of neuronal action potentials depend on myelin, a sheathing structure around axons that is produced by oligodendrocytes. In addition to their ability to insulate axons, oligodendrocytes provide metabolic support to neurons and induce axonal aggregation of sodium channels along the junction of Ranvier, an important prerequisite for jumpy nerve conduction.

In addition to playing an important role in neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), oligodendrocytes have also been reported as modulators of depression, sleep and wakefulness, and glioblastoma. However, the effect of radiofrequency EMR on gene expression or function in oligodendrocytes is unknown.

 

Electromagnetic radiation of cellphones can affect sleep and gene expression

Waveguide exposure system (picture from International Journal of Molecular Sciences )

 

C/EBPβ belongs to a family of transcription factors (C/EBPα-ζ) whose members share a basic leucine zipper domain at the C-terminus for DNA binding and dimerization. Interactions between homodimers and heterodimers occur not only between isoforms but also between different family members.

Through leaky ribosome scanning, C/EBPβ mRNA generates three distinct protein isoforms from a single exon gene: full-length liver-enriched activator protein (38-kDa LAP1), 34-kDa liver-enriched activator protein (LAP2) and 21-kDa liver enrichment inhibitory protein (LIP).

C/EBPβ has been reported to regulate a wide range of physiological activities, including autophagy, myeloid differentiation, inflammation, synaptic plasticity, and etiology of glioblastoma. Whether and how radiofrequency EMR affects C/EBPβ expression and function in oligodendrocytes is unclear.

 

Electromagnetic radiation of cellphones can affect sleep and gene expression

After exposure to 2.4 GHz EMR for 6 h, the expression of C/EBP interacting proteins was mainly changed (Figure from International Journal of Molecular Sciences )

 

The study exposed four types of brain cells to EMR at a 2.4 GHz continuous or pulse-modulated waveform with an average input power of 1W.

The results of this study showed that the transcription of C/EBPβ was significantly upregulated in oligodendrocytes (but not in neuronal cells, microglia, or primary astrocytes) after 6 hours of exposure to PW-RF , while in CW-RF there is none.

Consistent with this, C/EBPβ expression was significantly increased in oligodendrocytes after 6 hr exposure to PW-RF.

Furthermore, 6 h exposure to PW-RF specifically increased the expression of C/EBPβ-interacting proteins and the transcriptional activity of C/EBPβ. The results showed that the expression and function of C/EBPβ in oligodendrocytes were specifically regulated by pulse-modulated EMR.

 

 

 

 

 

Reference news:

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/24/13/11131

Electromagnetic radiation of cellphones can affect sleep and gene expression

(source:internet, reference only)


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