March 2, 2024

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The Latest List of Carcinogens: 8 New Carcinogens Added

The Latest List of Carcinogens: 8 New Carcinogens Added

The Latest List of Carcinogens: 8 New Carcinogens Added! These 20 are the most common in life!

In the latest version (15th edition) of the carcinogen report released by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 8 new carcinogens are on the list!

Among them, Helicobacter pylori is listed as a definite carcinogen, and six haloacetic acid (HAA) substances used as flame retardants and tap water disinfection are listed as reasonably suspected human carcinogens.

Let us take a look at the latest and most complete list of carcinogens, as well as those carcinogens hidden in our daily lives.

The Latest List of Carcinogens: 8 New Carcinogens Added

Image source: “National Toxicology Program” official website


8 new confirmed carcinogens added

1. Chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori is listed as a clear carcinogen

In recent years, a series of studies have shown that Helicobacter pylori infection can significantly increase the risk of gastric cancer, and people have found multiple mechanisms by which Helicobacter pylori induces gastric cancer.

2. Antimony trioxide is listed as a reasonably suspected carcinogen.

Antimony trioxide is an inorganic compound that is widely used in plastics, textiles and other chemical products as a flame retardant. Workers who manufacture antimony trioxide may be exposed to the substance for a long time at work, and poor-quality furniture or carpets may also release the substance. Long-term exposure may induce the occurrence of cancer.

3. Haloacetic acid by-products produced after tap water disinfection

Tap water requires a large amount of chlorine-based disinfectants during the production process, which may react with some compounds in the water to form haloacetic acid, which has teratogenic and carcinogenic side effects. There are six main haloacetic acids newly added in this report,bromochloroacetic acid (BCA), bromodichloroacetic acid (BDCA), chlorodibromoacetic acid (CDBA), dibromoacetic acid ( DBA), dichloroacetic acid (DCA), tribromoacetic acid (TBA).

In recent years, advances in tap water disinfection and filtration technologies can significantly reduce the content of haloacetic acid in water. Currently, various countries have standards limiting the content of haloacetic acid in tap water.

Therefore, we can use tap water with confidence and don’t have to worry!


Keep this “carcinogen list” away!

The International Agency for Research on Cancer, a subsidiary of the World Health Organization, has compiled and published four categories of carcinogens based on their relevance to cancer. It should be said to be the most comprehensive “list of carcinogens” to date.

  • Category 1 is a confirmed carcinogen to humans;
  • Category 2 has limited evidence of carcinogenicity to humans;
  • Category 3 is suspected of carcinogenicity to humans;
  • Category 4 refers to substances that may not be carcinogenic to the human body.

There are 120 types of Class 1 carcinogens (the highest level of carcinogens), including alcoholic beverages, salted fish, air pollution, solar radiation and smoking, which are closely related to people’s daily life. Staying away from these 120 “category 1 confirmed carcinogens” can help you greatly avoid cancer.


20 kinds of daily exposure to carcinogens

1. Acetaldehyde related to alcoholic beverage intake: Acetaldehyde is an intermediate product of ethanol metabolism in the human body. Acetaldehyde can cause DNA damage or double-strand breaks in cells, which can cause cancer.

2. Ethanol in alcoholic beverages: Ethanol can not only metabolize to produce acetaldehyde, but also generate a large number of oxygen free radicals under the action of enzymes, which can lead to liver cell cancer.

3. Alcoholic beverages: Carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (such as benzopyrene) may also be produced during the fermentation and distillation processes of wine and alcoholic beverages.

4. Smoking: Cigarettes contain large amounts of benzopyrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenolic compounds, formaldehyde and other carcinogens.

5. Secondhand tobacco smoke: The cold smoke exhaled by smokers contains twice as much tar and twice as much benzopyrene as the hot smoke inhaled by smokers.

6. Smokeless tobacco: including chewing tobacco and snuff, etc., which contain higher nicotine and nitrosamine content, and contain carcinogens such as formaldehyde, arsenic, and cadmium.

7.N’-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(N-methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK): two types exist Nitrosamine compounds in tobacco and smoke can induce a variety of cancers.

8. Processed meat (ingestion): Cured meat contains more nitrites and phosphates, and smoked meat contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (benzopyrene).

9. Chinese salted fish: The pickling process produces a large amount of nitrite, which may be related to nasopharyngeal cancer.

10. Betel nut: The alkaloids contained in betel nut can damage the cell membranes of mucosal cells and damage the DNA of cells.

11. Tobacco-containing betel nut chews: The cause of cancer is similar to that of betel nut. Tobacco increases the toxicity of betel nut.

12. Tobacco-free betel nut chewing pieces: The cause of cancer is similar to that of areca nut.

13. Outdoor air pollution: It can easily lead to lung cancer and the risk of bladder cancer will also increase.

14. Outdoor air pollution containing particulate matter: Inhalable particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5 are also considered to be extremely harmful to human health and can increase the risk of cancer.

15. Diesel engine exhaust: Exhaust contains hundreds of different compounds, which have been confirmed to be related to lung cancer and bladder cancer.

16. Indoor emissions from household coal burning: Carcinogens represented by benzopyrene are emitted, which can easily induce lung cancer.

17. Benzopyrene: A chemical substance present in coal tar, which is commonly found in automobile exhaust, smoke from tobacco and wood burning, and charcoal-grilled food.

18. Benzene: A basic raw material in the petrochemical industry, benzene is contained in paints, wallpapers, carpets, printers, automobile exhaust, synthetic fibers, building decoration materials, artificial panel furniture and cigarette smoke. The products of benzene metabolism in the human body can cause the breakage and fragmentation of DNA chains and induce leukemia.

19. Formaldehyde: Ordinary people are mainly exposed to formaldehyde through artificial panels in newly decorated homes. It can cause nasopharyngeal cancer, neonatal malformations, childhood leukemia, myeloid leukemia, etc.

20. Untreated or lightly treated mineral oil: used to make hair lotion, hair oil, hair wax, lipstick, facial oil, skin care butter, etc., contains a variety of hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metals and other impurities that may induce cancer.


18 types of radiation carcinogens

21. Solar radiation: Excessive exposure to ultraviolet rays in the sun can cause skin cancer.

22. Ultraviolet radiation: Damages DNA in skin cells, causing skin cancer.

23. Ultraviolet luminous tanning equipment: Releases ultraviolet radiation, which damages the DNA in skin cells and causes skin cancer.

24. Zanthoxylum bungeanum toxin (8-methoxypsoralen) combined with ultraviolet A radiation: In foreign countries, Zanthoxylum bungeanum toxin plus ultraviolet light therapy is mainly used to treat vitiligo, psoriasis and other stubborn skin diseases, but it may induce cell cancer.

25. Ionizing radiation (all types): Ionizing radiation is radiation that can ionize the affected material, mainly including alpha rays, beta rays, proton flow, neutron flow, X-rays, gamma rays, etc. Ionizing radiation can induce various types of DNA molecular damage, thereby causing cancer.

26. Radionuclides, alpha particle radiation, internal deposition: produced when heavy atoms (such as uranium, radium) or artificial nuclides decay, equivalent to helium nuclei, which can cause tissue damage and cancer.

27. Radionuclides, beta particle radiation, internal deposition: Radioactive nuclei are produced when nuclei decay, equivalent to electrons, and can cause tissue damage and cancer.

28. X-ray and gamma ray radiation: produce ionizing radiation and damage cellular DNA.

29. Neutron radiation: Artificial method releases neutrons from atomic nuclei, which can cause malignant tumors and leukemia.

30. Fission products, including strontium-90: Fission of heavy nuclei produces a variety of radionuclides. Fission products are widely used in industry, agriculture and medicine. For example, krypton-85 is used as a beta radioactive source and the energy source of self-luminous lamps; cesium-137 is a gamma radioactive source; strontium-90 is a beta radioactive source; technetium-99m is used in nuclear Medically used for clinical diagnosis. Strontium-90 can easily cause leukemia, and cesium-137 can cause liver cancer and kidney cancer.

31. Radioactive iodine, including iodine-131: often used in cancer chemotherapy, also has cancer risk.

32. Radon-222 and its decay products: Natural stone may contain radioactive radon, and building materials are the main source of indoor radon.

33. Radium-224 and its decay products: All isotopes of radium are strongly radioactive, and ionizing radiation can make fluorescent substances glow.

34. Radium-226 and its decay products.

35. Radium-228 and its decay products.

36. Thorium-232 and its decay products: natural radionuclides will appear in large earth and rock engineering projects such as mining and tunneling, and nuclear fuel waste treatment.

37. Plutonium: radioactive element, important raw material for the atomic energy industry, nuclear fuel and fission agent for nuclear weapons. Plutonium easily accumulates in the liver and bones, causing cancer in human tissues.

38. Phosphorus-32, phosphate form: a radioactive isotope of phosphorus. Phosphates are mainly used for adjuvant treatment of certain malignant tumors and are carcinogenic.


12 types of viruses, bacteria, parasites and toxins that are carcinogens

39. Hepatitis B virus (chronic infection): Hepatitis B virus can cause DNA rearrangement and loss of DNA fragments, and reduce the ability of liver cells to degrade other carcinogens.

40. Hepatitis C virus (chronic infection): The core protein of the virus is closely related to liver cancer.

41. Human immunodeficiency virus type I (infection): HIV can synthesize DNA and integrate it into the DNA of host cells, causing cells to undergo cancerous transformation, especially when cellular immunity is destroyed and the immune surveillance function is lost. , cell cancer is more likely to occur.

42. Human papillomavirus: DNA virus, more than 130 types have been isolated so far, divided into high-risk and low-risk types. Different types can cause different clinical manifestations. Among them, high-risk types 16 and 18 are the main types that cause cervical cancer.

43. Human T-lymphotropic virus type I: changes the DNA of host lymphocytes, causes cells to proliferate and divide continuously, and induces leukemia.

44. Epstein-Barr virus: A herpes virus that is transmitted through saliva and mainly causes acute infectious mononucleosis. It is associated with many malignant tumors such as T-cell lymphoma.

45. Kaposi’s sarcoma herpesvirus: A herpes virus that can cause Kaposi’s sarcoma (endothelial cell tumor) and primary effusion lymphoma.

46. ​​Helicobacter pylori (infection): It is mainly transmitted through mouth-oral and feces-oral. If it settles in the stomach for a long time, it will gradually destroy the gastrointestinal tract wall and cause gastric cancer.

47. Clonorchis sinensis (infection): Also known as liver fluke, infection is mainly caused by eating undercooked freshwater fish or shrimp containing Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae. It can cause bile duct epithelial cell proliferation and cause carcinogenesis, mainly adenocarcinoma.

48. Opisthorchis musk deer (infection): Infected by eating raw fish containing metacercariae, which parasitize in the hepatobiliary ducts and induce cholangiocarcinoma.

49. Schistosoma haematobium (infection): Mainly distributed in Africa, Southern Europe and the Middle East, it can cause bladder cancer.

50. Aflatoxin: It is a metabolite produced by Aspergillus aflatoxin, Aspergillus parasiticus, etc. Mainly found in moldy peanuts, corn, soybeans, rice, wheat and other grains, nuts and oil products, it is the main cause of diseases such as liver cancer, gastric cancer and intestinal cancer.


22 pharmaceutical carcinogens

51. Busulfan: anti-cancer drug, used to treat chronic myelogenous leukemia. It damages the structure and function of DNA by alkylating with guanine in cellular DNA, and may also cause cancer.

52. Chlorambucil: an anti-cancer drug, used to treat Hodgkin lymphoma, several types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and some breast cancers. It can cause cross-linking of DNA strands and affect DNA function, thus causing cancer.

53. Naphthyl mustard: anticancer drug, used to treat Hodgkin lymphoma. Causes cross-linking of DNA strands, affects DNA function, and causes cancer.

54. Cyclophosphamide: anti-cancer drug, used to treat malignant lymphoma, acute or chronic lymphocytic leukemia, multiple myeloma, and also used to treat breast cancer, testicular tumors, ovarian cancer, lung cancer, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, Nasopharyngeal cancer, etc., interfering with DNA and RNA functions.

55. Melphalan: Anticancer drug, used to treat multiple myeloma and ovarian cancer. Acts by damaging DNA structure, thereby causing cancer.

56. Etoposide: anti-cancer drug, mainly used to treat small cell lung cancer, malignant lymphoma, malignant germ cell tumor, leukemia, etc. Acts on DNase, preventing damaged DNA from being repaired and causing cancer.

57. Etoposide combined with cisplatin and bleomycin: combined chemotherapy regimen, mainly used for ovarian germ cell malignant tumors and laryngeal cancer, etc., may also cause cancer.

58. MOPP and other combination chemotherapy containing alkylating agents: treatment options for Hodgkin lymphoma, which may cause cancer risks.

59. Semustine: anti-cancer drug, mainly used to treat malignant melanoma, malignant lymphoma, brain tumors, lung cancer, etc., and has carcinogenic risks.

60. Tamoxifen: anti-cancer drug, used to treat breast and ovarian cancer, with carcinogenic risks.

61. Trimethion: anti-cancer drug, used to treat ovarian cancer and has carcinogenic risks.

62. Quosulfan: an anti-cancer drug, mainly used to treat lung cancer and has the risk of causing cancer.

63. Azathioprine: a drug used to fight rejection during organ transplantation. It inhibits the synthesis of DNA, RNA and protein and can induce cancer.

64. Cyclosporine: A drug used to prevent rejection of liver, kidney and heart transplants. Due to its immunosuppressive function, it increases the risk of cancer.

65. Diethylstilbestrol: a synthetic estrogen. Can cause adenocarcinoma of the female reproductive system and cause fetal cancer through the placenta.

66. Postmenopausal estrogen therapy: may increase the incidence of breast cancer and endometrial cancer.

67. Estrogen-progestin menopausal treatment (combined use): may increase the incidence of breast cancer and endometrial cancer.

68. Estrogen-progestin oral contraceptives (combined use): can induce liver cancer and increase the risk of breast cancer and cervical cancer.

69. Phenacetin: an antipyretic and analgesic drug that has been banned in many countries. Large-dose use may induce kidney cancer and bladder cancer.

70. Analgesic mixture containing phenacetin: used to treat fever, headache, toothache, neuralgia, etc., which can cause severe kidney damage and liver damage, and induce kidney cancer and bladder cancer.

71. Aristolochic acid: Some studies believe that aristolochic acid induces liver cancer mainly through gene mutation.

72. Plants containing aristolochic acid: Aristolochic acid widely exists in plants of the Aristolochaceae family. Common medicinal materials containing aristolochic acid include Aristolochia, Heliotrope, Aristolochia, Xugufeng, Guanmutong, Guangzhou Fangji, Asarum, etc.


28 industrial products and their polluting carcinogens

73. Cadmium and cadmium compounds: Cadmium is mainly used in the manufacture of alloys, nickel-cadmium batteries, solders and semiconductor materials.

74. Chromium (6-valent) compound: Wastewater from leather manufacturing and metallurgical chemical industry pollutes water bodies, farmland and aquatic products, and then enters the human body. Chromium (6-valent) compounds have strong oxidizing properties and are harmful to the digestive tract, respiratory tract, skin and mucous membranes.

75. Arsenic and inorganic arsenic compounds: Arsenic is mostly found in rocks in nature as inorganic arsenic compounds. Arsenic trioxide is commonly known as arsenic. Arsenic-containing wastewater and waste discharged from industrial and mining development, and arsenic-containing pesticides and herbicides used in agriculture are all sources of arsenic. Can cause skin cancer and lung cancer.

76. Nickel compounds: can be used to make ceramics, glass, catalysts, magnetic materials, electronic components and batteries, etc. Nickel compounds can induce oncogene expression and cancer cell expansion in the human body.

77. Beryllium and beryllium compounds: Beryllium and beryllium compounds are mainly used in alloys, etc. After entering the human body, insoluble beryllium oxide is mainly stored in the lungs and can cause lung cancer.

78. Asbestos: Mainly used in fire-resistant asbestos textiles, water pipes, insulation boards and thermal insulation materials in buildings, electrical appliances, automobiles, and household products. Asbestos itself is not toxic, but fine asbestos dust will adhere and deposit in the lungs, causing lung cancer and mesothelioma in the pleura and peritoneum.

79. Fluorinated-light amphibole fibrous amphibole: similar to asbestos, it is easy to deposit in the lungs and induce lung cancer and mesothelioma in the pleura and peritoneum.

80. Erionite: A rare natural mineral with properties similar to asbestos, which can cause mesothelioma in the pleura and peritoneum.

81.2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin: The most toxic monomer of all dioxin types. It is not produced artificially and has no use. It is produced after burning garbage and industrial waste without treatment. Emitted products.

82.2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran: A type of dioxins that can cause damage to the immune system, nervous system, endocrine system and reproductive function. Long-term excessive intake may cause multi-system diseases. malignant tumors at the site.

83. Dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, with WHO toxic equivalence factor (TEF): classified under the name of “dioxin”, with similar toxicity.

84. Polychlorinated biphenyls: synthetic organic compounds, used industrially as heat carriers, insulating oils and lubricating oils. It can be absorbed through the skin, respiratory tract, and digestive tract, and accumulates in the human body, causing diseases of the brain, skin, and internal organs, and affecting the nervous, reproductive, and immune systems. The main organ that causes cancer is the liver.

85.3,4,5,3′,4′-Pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126): Mainly used as a heat-resistant and flame-proof plasticizer, and is related to the occurrence of liver cancer.

86. Pentachlorophenol (polychlorophenol): Mainly used as a herbicide in rice fields, a preservative and antifungal agent for textiles, leather, paper and wood. It is teratogenic and carcinogenic to the human body. Dioxins are released when burned.

87.4,4-Methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) (MOCA): A curing agent for synthetic rubber and epoxy resins, which may cause cancer.

88.4 – Aminobiphenyl: It is an intermediate of pesticides and dyes. It is mainly used in organic synthesis, manufacturing dyes and making rubber antioxidants. It can be inhaled, ingested or absorbed through the skin.

89. Benzidine: An intermediate in the synthesis of dyes. Long-term exposure can easily induce bladder cancer.

90. Benzidine produced by dye metabolism: Certain dyes may produce benzidine after metabolism, causing structural and functional changes in the DNA of human cells.

91.2-Naphthylamine: used in the manufacture of dyes and organic synthesis, and also used as organic analysis reagents and fluorescent indicators. Long-term exposure may cause bladder cancer.

92. O-Toluidine: Mainly used as dyes, pesticides, pharmaceuticals and organic synthesis intermediates, it can induce bladder cancer.

93. Vinyl chloride: used as a comonomer for various polymers and an important raw material in the plastics industry. It can also be used as a refrigerant and can induce hepatic angiosarcoma.

94. Trichlorethylene: It has been used as an analgesic and metal degreasing agent. It can also be used as an extractant, bactericide, refrigerant and clothes dry cleaning agent. Linked to various cancers including liver and kidney cancer.

95.1,3-Butadiene: It is a raw material for manufacturing synthetic rubber, synthetic resin, nylon, etc. It can cause malignant tumors in various tissues and organs such as cardiovascular, lung, stomach, liver, breast and kidney.

96. Lindane (hexachlorocyclohexane): Agricultural pesticide, commonly known as 666. It is associated with breast cancer, rectal cancer, etc.

97.1,2-Dichloropropane: A raw material for manufacturing pesticides, insecticides, detergents, rubber, and pharmaceuticals. It is considered to be the culprit of frequent cholangiocarcinoma in the Japanese printing industry.

98. Ethylene oxide: A fungicide used in washing, pharmaceutical, printing and dyeing and other industries. Long-term exposure will increase the risk of leukemia and malignant tumors of the hematopoietic system.

99. Bis(chloromethyl) ether and chloromethyl ether (industrial grade): They are mainly used in the production of anion exchange resins and sulfadiazine drugs. Long-term exposure can cause lung cancer.

100. Sulfur mustard gas: The chemical weapon mustard gas, whose scientific name is dichlorodiethyl sulfide, can cause skin and immune system cancer.


20 carcinogens from industrial production processes and occupational exposures

101. Painters, painters, plasterers, etc. (occupational exposure): Pigments contain heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, mercury, and chromium, and paints and organic solvents contain benzene and formaldehyde. Long-term exposure will increase the risk of cancer.

102. Rubber manufacturing industry: During the production process, there are many chemical additives, which can easily lead to exposure to carcinogens such as aniline, which can induce bladder cancer, gastric cancer, lung cancer, leukemia, etc.

103. Steel casting (occupational exposure): Multiple links may lead to a high incidence of cancer. For example, furnace smoke may contain benzopyrene.

104. Hematite mining (underground): Exposure to dust during mining may cause lung cancer.

105. Crystalline silica dust in the form of quartz or cristobalite: Workers who have been engaged in mining, quarrying, and gravel operations for a long time are prone to regularly inhaling silica dust and have a higher risk of cancer.

106. Welding smoke: contains harmful substances such as manganese dioxide, nitrogen oxides, fluoride, ozone, etc., and also contains fine metal particles such as heavy metal cadmium.

107. Wood dust: Contains carcinogens such as wood tar and benzopyrene.

108. Leather powder: Common in the shoemaking process, it can easily cause nasal cancer.

109. Soot (occupational exposure of chimney cleaners): Carcinogens such as benzopyrene are present in soot.

110. Coal gasification: The industrial process will produce pollutants such as dust, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide, as well as carcinogens such as coal tar, benzene, and phenol.

111. Coal tar distillation: Carcinogens such as benzene and benzopyrene will be produced during the industrial process.

112. Coal tar pitch: The residue after coal tar is distilled and extracted. It is mainly used to produce pitch coke, road construction asphalt, various asphalt anti-corrosion paints, etc., and contains carcinogens such as benzopyrene.

113. Shale oil: The oil contained in shale may cause occupational skin cancer.

114. Coke production: Carcinogens such as benzene and benzopyrene will be produced during the industrial process.

115. Acheson process related to occupational exposure (using electric arc furnace to produce silicon carbide): Silicon carbide is mainly used to manufacture wear-resistant materials, circuit components, photovoltaic products, etc. During smelting, carcinogens such as coal tar and benzopyrene are emitted things.

116. Aluminum production: Aluminum production may produce dust such as alumina and petroleum coke, as well as harmful substances such as fluoride, sulfide, asphalt smoke, and carbon monoxide.

117. Production of auramine: Auramine is a chemical used as a dye and dye intermediate for dyeing fabrics, paper and leather. The production process has been linked to an increase in bladder cancer.

118. Magenta production: Magenta is mainly used for dyeing silk, acrylic, wool and other textiles. Workers who produce magenta dye have an increased risk of bladder cancer.

119. Strong inorganic acid mist: refers to mist-like acid substances formed by inorganic acids such as sulfuric acid, nitric acid, and hydrochloric acid. It mainly appears in the acid use process in chemical industry, electronics, metallurgy, electroplating, textile, machinery manufacturing and other industries. It may cause cancer. risk.

120. Use strong acid to produce isopropyl alcohol: Isopropyl alcohol is an important chemical raw material and is mainly used as a dehydrating agent and cleaning agent in the pharmaceutical, cosmetics, plastics, spices, coatings and electronics industries.

Finally, it needs to be emphasized that this does not mean that exposure to these substances will cause cancer, but that these substances are high-risk substances that cause cancer. There is evidence that long-term exposure will increase the risk of cancer.

Therefore, we should try to reduce our exposure to these substances in our lives to reduce the risk of cancer.


Full report: 15th Report on Carcinogens

The Latest List of Carcinogens: 8 New Carcinogens Added

(source:internet, reference only)

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Important Note: The information provided is for informational purposes only and should not be considered as medical advice.