February 2, 2023

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Health and Human Services (HHS): The 15th Report on Carcinogens

U.S. Health and Human Services (HHS) released the 15th Report on Carcinogens


U.S. Health and Human Services (HHS) released the 15th Report on Carcinogens

On December 21, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)  released the latest edition-the 15th edition of the Carcinogen Report, which added 8 new carcinogens.
In the latest report, Helicobacter pylori was listed as a clear carcinogen, and six halogenated acetic acid (HAA) substances used as flame retardants and tap water disinfection were listed as reasonably suspected human carcinogens.

U.S. Health and Human Services (HHS) released the 15th Report on Carcinogens

(Source: NTP Magazine)


1. Chronic Helicobacter pylori infection is listed as a clear carcinogen

Chronic Helicobacter pylori infection is classified as a clear human carcinogen. In recent years, a series of studies have shown that Helicobacter pylori infection can significantly increase the risk of gastric cancer. At the same time, people have found a variety of mechanisms by which Helicobacter pylori induces gastric cancer.


2. Antimony trioxide is classified as a reasonably suspected carcinogen

Antimony trioxide is classified as a reasonably suspected carcinogen. Antimony trioxide is an inorganic compound that is widely used in plastics, textiles and other chemical products as a flame retardant. Workers who manufacture antimony trioxide may be exposed to the substance for a long time at work. At the same time, the substance may also be released from inferior furniture or carpets. Long-term exposure may induce cancer.


3. 6 kinds of halogenated acetic acid by-products after disinfection of tap water

The remaining 6 kinds of halogenated acetic acid by-products after disinfection of tap water. Tap water requires a large amount of chlorine-based disinfectant in the production process, which may react with some compounds in the water to form halogenated acetic acid, which has teratogenic and carcinogenic side effects. There are mainly 6 newly added halogenated acetic acids in this report, bromochloroacetic acid (BCA), bromodichloroacetic acid (BDCA), chlorodibromoacetic acid (CDBA), dibromoacetic acid (DBA), and dichloroacetic acid (DCA) , Tribromoacetic acid (TBA).


In recent years, the progress of tap water disinfection technology and filtration technology can significantly reduce the content of halogenated acetic acid in water. At present, various countries also have standards to limit the content of halogenated acetic acid in tap water. Therefore, we can safely use tap water without worrying!



This “list of carcinogens” must be collected!  


In 2017, the International Agency for Research on Cancer under the World Health Organization compiled and published a list of 4 types of carcinogens based on the degree of correlation with cancer. It should be said that it is the most comprehensive “list of carcinogens” so far.

Among them, category 1 is a confirmed carcinogen for humans; category 2 has limited evidence of carcinogenicity to humans; category 3 is suspicious of carcinogenicity to humans; category 4 is a substance that may not be carcinogenic to humans.

There are 120 kinds of carcinogens in Category 1 (the highest level carcinogens), including alcoholic beverages, salted fish, air pollution, solar radiation, and smoking that are closely related to people’s daily lives. If you can stay away from these 120 “category 1 confirmed carcinogens”, it can help you stay away from cancer.



Daily Contacts——20 kinds


1. Acetaldehyde related to the intake of alcoholic beverages: Acetaldehyde is an intermediate product of ethanol metabolism in the human body. Acetaldehyde can cause DNA damage or double-strand breaks in cells, thereby causing cancer.


2. Ethanol in alcoholic beverages: Ethanol can not only metabolize to produce acetaldehyde, but also generate a large amount of oxygen free radicals under the action of enzymes, leading to liver cell cancer.


3. Alcoholic beverages: Carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (such as benzopyrene) may also be produced during the fermentation and distillation of wine and alcoholic beverages.


4. Smoking: Cigarettes contain a lot of carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzopyrene, phenolic compounds, and formaldehyde.


5. Second-hand tobacco smoke: The tar content in cold smoke exhaled by smokers is twice as much as that in hot smoke inhaled by smokers and twice as much benzopyrene.


6. Smokeless tobacco: including chewing tobacco and snuff, etc., which contain higher levels of nicotine and nitrosamines, and contain carcinogens such as formaldehyde, arsenic, and cadmium.


7. N’-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(N-methylnitrosamine)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK): two types exist in tobacco And nitrogen nitrosamine compounds in smoke can induce a variety of cancers.


8. Processed meat (ingestion): cured meat contains more nitrite and phosphate, and smoked meat contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (benzopyrene).


9. Chinese salted fish: The salting process produces a lot of nitrite, which may be related to nasopharyngeal cancer.


10. Betel nut: The alkaloids contained in betel nut can damage the cell membrane of mucosal cells and damage the DNA of cells.


11. Tobacco-containing betel nut chews: The cause of cancer is similar to that of betel nut. Tobacco increases the toxicity of betel nut.


12. Tobacco-free betel nut chews: the cause of cancer is similar to that of betel nut.


13. Outdoor air pollution: it is easy to cause lung cancer, and the risk of bladder cancer will increase.


14. Outdoor air pollution containing particulate matter: Inhalable particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5 are also considered to be extremely harmful to human health and increase the risk of cancer.


15. Diesel engine exhaust: Exhaust gas contains hundreds of different compounds, which have been confirmed to be associated with lung cancer and bladder cancer.


16. Indoor emissions from household coal burning: Carcinogens represented by benzopyrene are emitted, which can easily induce lung cancer.


17. Benzopyrene: a chemical substance present in coal tar, and coal tar is commonly found in automobile exhaust, smoke from the burning of tobacco and wood, and charcoal grilled food.


18. Benzene: the basic raw material of petrochemical industry, paint, wallpaper, carpet, printer, automobile exhaust, synthetic fiber, building decoration materials, wood-based furniture and cigarette smoke all contain benzene. The products of benzene metabolism in the human body can cause DNA strands to break and break, and induce leukemia.


19. Formaldehyde: Ordinary people mainly come into contact with formaldehyde through artificial boards in newly decorated homes. It can cause nasopharyngeal cancer, neonatal malformations, childhood leukemia, myelogenous leukemia, etc.


20. Untreated or lightly treated mineral oil: used in the manufacture of hair cream, hair oil, hair wax, lipstick, facial oil, skin cream, etc., containing a variety of hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metals and other impurities may induce cancer.


Radiation type-18 types


21. Solar radiation: Excessive exposure to the sun, ultraviolet rays in the sun can cause skin cancer.

22. Ultraviolet radiation: damage the DNA in skin cells and cause skin cancer.

23. Ultraviolet luminous sunbathing equipment: release ultraviolet radiation, damage the DNA in skin cells, and cause skin cancer.

24. Xanthotoxin (8-Methoxypsoralen) with ultraviolet A radiation: Xanthotoxin plus ultraviolet light therapy is mainly used in foreign clinics to treat vitiligo, psoriasis and other skin diseases, but it may induce cell cancer.

25. Ionizing radiation (all types): Ionizing radiation is radiation that can cause ionization of affected substances, mainly including alpha rays, beta rays, proton flow, neutron flow, X-rays, gamma rays, etc. Ionizing radiation can induce multiple types of DNA molecular damage, thereby causing cancer.

26. Radionuclides, alpha particle emission, internal deposition: produced when heavy atoms (such as uranium, radium) or artificial nuclides decay, equivalent to helium nuclei, which can cause tissue damage and cancer.

27. Radionuclide, beta particle emission, internal deposition: produced when radioactive nuclei decay, equivalent to electrons, which can cause tissue damage and cancer.

28. X-ray and gamma-ray radiation: produce ionizing radiation and damage cell DNA.

29. Neutron radiation: Artificial methods release neutrons from the nucleus, which can cause malignant tumors and leukemia.

30. Fission products, including strontium-90: heavy nuclear fission produces a variety of radionuclides. Fission products are widely used in industry, agriculture, and medicine. For example, krypton-85 is used as a source of beta radiation and energy for self-luminous lamps; cesium-137 is a source of gamma radiation; strontium-90 is a source of beta radiation; technetium-99m is used in nuclear Medically used for clinical diagnosis. Strontium-90 can easily cause leukemia, and cesium-137 can cause liver cancer and kidney cancer.

31. Radioactive iodine, including iodine-131: It is often used in cancer chemotherapy and has a risk of cancer.

32. Radon-222 and its decay products: Natural stone may contain radioactive radon, and building materials are the main source of indoor radon.

33. Radium-224 and its decay products: All isotopes of radium have strong radioactivity, and ionizing radiation can make fluorescent substances glow.

34. Radium-226 and its decay products

35. Radium-228 and its decay products

36. Thorium-232 and its decay products: natural radionuclides, appear in the process of mining and tunneling and other large-scale earth and rock works, and nuclear fuel waste treatment.

37. Plutonium: a radioactive element, an important raw material for the atomic energy industry, nuclear fuel and a fission agent for nuclear weapons. Plutonium easily accumulates in the liver and bones, causing cancer in human tissues.

38. Phosphorus-32, phosphate form: a radioactive isotope of phosphorus. Phosphate is mainly used in the adjuvant treatment of certain malignant tumors and is carcinogenic.

[Virus, bacteria, parasites and toxins-12 species]

39. Hepatitis B virus (chronic infection) : Hepatitis B virus can cause DNA rearrangement and loss of DNA fragments, and reduce the ability of liver cells to degrade other carcinogens.

40. Hepatitis C virus (chronic infection): The core protein of the virus is closely related to liver cancer.

41. Human immunodeficiency virus type I (infection): HIV, which can synthesize DNA and integrate into the DNA of the host cell, causing the cell to undergo cancerous transformation, especially when the cellular immunity is destroyed and the immune surveillance function is lost. , Cell carcinoma is prone to change.

42. Human papillomavirus: DNA virus, currently more than 130 types have been isolated, divided into high-risk type and low-risk type, different types will cause different clinical manifestations. Among them, high-risk types 16 and 18 are the main types that cause cervical cancer.

43. Human T-lymphophilic virus type I: Change the host lymphocyte DNA, make the cells continue to proliferate and divide, and induce leukemia.

44. Epstein-Barr virus: a herpes virus that is spread through saliva and mainly causes acute infectious mononucleosis. It is related to many malignant tumors such as T-cell lymphoma.

45. Kaposi’s sarcoma herpes virus: a herpes virus that can cause Kaposi’s sarcoma (endothelial cell tumor) and primary exudative lymphoma.

46. ​​Helicobacter pylori (infection) : It is mainly spread through mouth-mouth and feces-mouth. It settles in the stomach for a long time and will gradually destroy the wall of the gastrointestinal tract and cause gastric cancer.

47. Clonorchis sinensis (infection): Also known as liver fluke, it is mainly infected by eating uncooked freshwater fish or shrimp containing Clonorchis sinensis metacercaria. It can cause the proliferation of bile duct epithelial cells and cause cancer, mainly adenocarcinoma.

48. Postorchis muscari (infection): Infected by eating raw fish containing metacercaria, parasitizes in the liver and bile ducts, and induces cholangiocarcinoma.

49. Schistosoma haematobium (infection): Mainly distributed in Africa, Southern Europe and the Middle East, it can cause bladder cancer.

50. Aflatoxin: It is a metabolite produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Mainly found in moldy peanuts, corn, soybeans, rice, wheat and other grains, nuts and oil products, it is the main cause of diseases such as liver cancer, stomach cancer and intestinal cancer.


Drugs-22 kinds


51. Busulfan: anticancer drug, treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. It can also cause cancer by destroying the structure and function of DNA through alkylation of guanine in cellular DNA.

52. Chlorambucil: an anticancer drug used to treat Hodgkin’s lymphoma, several types of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and some breast cancers, etc. It can cause DNA strands to cross-connect and affect DNA function, thereby causing cancer.

53. Chlormethamine: an anticancer drug used to treat Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Causes DNA strands to cross-link and affect DNA function, thereby causing cancer.

54. Cyclophosphamide: anticancer drug, used to treat malignant lymphoma, acute or chronic lymphocytic leukemia, multiple myeloma, and also used to treat breast cancer, testicular tumors, ovarian cancer, lung cancer, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, Nasopharyngeal carcinoma, etc., interfere with the function of DNA and RNA.

55. Melphalan: anticancer drug, used to treat multiple myeloma and ovarian cancer. It acts by destroying the structure of DNA, causing cancer.

56. Etoposide: anticancer drug, mainly used to treat small cell lung cancer, malignant lymphoma, malignant germ cell tumor, leukemia, etc. Acting on DNase, so that damaged DNA can not be repaired, thus causing cancer.

57. Combination of etoposide with cisplatin and bleomycin: a combined chemotherapy regimen, mainly used for ovarian germ cell malignancies and laryngeal cancer, and may also cause cancer.

58. MOPP and other combination chemotherapy containing alkylating agents: the treatment of Hodgkin’s lymphoma, there is a risk of cancer.

59. Semustine: anticancer drug, mainly used for the treatment of malignant melanoma, malignant lymphoma, brain tumor, lung cancer, etc., with cancer risk.

60. Tamoxifen: anti-cancer drug, used to treat breast and ovarian cancer, there is a risk of cancer.

61. Triamiphos: anti-cancer drug, used to treat ovarian cancer, with cancer risk.

62. Qu Oshufan: anti-cancer drug, mainly for lung cancer, there is a risk of cancer.

63. Azathioprine: A drug used for anti-rejection during organ transplantation, inhibits the synthesis of DNA, RNA and protein, and can induce cancer.

64. Cyclosporine: anti-rejection drug for liver, kidney and heart transplantation. Due to immune suppression, it will increase the risk of cancer.

65. Diethylstilbestrol: a synthetic estrogen. It can cause adenocarcinoma of the female reproductive system and cause cancer to the fetus through the placenta.

66. Estrogen therapy after menopause: It may increase the incidence of breast cancer and endometrial cancer.

67. Estrogen-progesterone menopausal treatment (combined): It may increase the incidence of breast cancer and endometrial cancer.

68. Estrogen-progesterone oral contraceptives (combined): can induce liver cancer and increase the risk of breast and cervical cancer.

69. Phenacetin: anti-fever and analgesic drugs, which have been banned for sale in many countries. Large doses may induce kidney cancer and bladder cancer.

70. Analgesic mixture containing phenacetin: used to treat fever, headache, toothache, neuralgia, etc., can cause severe kidney damage and liver damage, and induce kidney cancer and bladder cancer.

71. Aristolochic acid: Some studies believe that aristolochic acid induces liver cancer mainly through gene mutations.

72. Plants containing aristolochic acid: Aristolochic acid is widely present in plants of the Aristolochiaceae family. Common medicinal materials containing aristolochia are Fangji, Asarum, etc.


Industrial products and their pollution-28 kinds


73. Cadmium and cadmium compounds: Cadmium is mainly used in the manufacture of alloys, nickel-cadmium batteries, solders and semiconductor materials.

74. Chromium (hexavalent) compounds: Wastewater from leather manufacturing and metallurgy and chemical industry pollutes water bodies, farmland and aquatic products and enters the human body. Chromium (hexavalent) compounds have strong oxidizing properties and are harmful to the digestive tract, respiratory tract, skin and mucous membranes.

75. Arsenic and inorganic arsenic compounds: Arsenic is mostly present in rocks as inorganic arsenic compounds in nature. Arsenic trioxide is commonly known as arsenic. Arsenic-containing wastewater and waste discharged from industrial and mineral development, as well as arsenic-containing pesticides and herbicides used in agriculture, are all sources of arsenic. It can cause skin cancer and lung cancer.

76. Nickel compounds: can be used to make ceramics, glass, catalysts, magnetic materials, electronic components and batteries. Nickel compounds can induce the expression of oncogenes and the expansion of cancer cells in the human body.

77. Beryllium and beryllium compounds: Beryllium and beryllium compounds are mainly used in alloys. After entering the human body, the insoluble beryllium oxide is mainly stored in the lungs and can cause lung cancer.

78. Asbestos: mainly used for fire-resistant asbestos textiles, water pipes, insulation boards and heat insulation materials in construction, electrical appliances, automobiles, and household products. Asbestos itself is non-toxic, but fine asbestos dust will adhere and deposit in the lungs, causing lung cancer and mesothelioma in the pleura and peritoneum.

79. Fluoro-light amphibole fibrous hornblende: similar to asbestos, it is easy to deposit in the lungs and induce lung cancer and mesothelioma in the pleura and peritoneum.

80. Erionite: a rare natural mineral, similar in nature to asbestos, which can cause mesothelioma in the pleura and peritoneum.

81.2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin: The most toxic monomer of all dioxin types. It is not produced by humans and has no purpose. It is burnt garbage and industrial waste without treatment. Products emitted.

82.2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran: A type of dioxins that can cause damage to the immune system, nervous system, endocrine system and reproductive function. Long-term excessive intake may cause multiple systems Malignant tumor at the site.

83. Dioxin-like PCBs, with WHO Toxicity Equivalence Factor (TEF): they are classified under the name “Dioxins” and have similar toxicity.

84. Polychlorinated biphenyls: synthetic organic substances, used industrially as heat carriers, insulating oils and lubricating oils. It can be absorbed through the skin, respiratory tract, and digestive tract, and is enriched in the human body, causing diseases of the brain, skin and internal organs and affecting the nervous, reproductive and immune systems. The cancerous organ is mainly the liver.

85.3,4,5,3′,4′-Pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126): mainly used as a heat-resistant and flame-proof plasticizer, which is related to the occurrence of liver cancer.

86. Pentachlorophenol (polychlorophenol): mainly used as a herbicide in paddy fields, as a preservative and antifungal agent for textiles, leather, paper and wood. It is teratogenic and carcinogenic to the human body. Dioxin compounds are released when burned.

87.4,4′-Methylene bis(2-chloroaniline) (MOCA): Curing agent for synthetic rubber and epoxy resin, which may cause cancer.

88.4-Aminobiphenyl: It is an intermediate of pesticides and dyes. It is mainly used in organic synthesis, dye production and rubber anti-aging agent, etc. It can be inhaled by the human body, ingested or absorbed through the skin.

89. Benzidine : intermediate of synthetic dyes, long-term exposure can easily induce bladder cancer.

90. Benzidine produced by dye metabolism: Some dyes may produce benzidine after metabolism, which leads to structural and functional changes in the DNA of human cells.

91.2-Naphthylamine: used in the manufacture of dyes and organic synthesis, as well as organic analytical reagents and fluorescent indicators. Long-term exposure has the risk of inducing bladder cancer.

92. O-Toluidine: Mainly used as dyes, pesticides, medicines and organic synthesis intermediates, which can induce bladder cancer.

93. Vinyl chloride: used as a comonomer of a variety of polymers, an important raw material in the plastics industry, and also as a refrigerant, which can induce liver angiosarcoma.

94. Trichloroethylene: Used as an analgesic and metal degreasing agent, it can also be used as an extractant, a bactericide, a refrigerant and a dry cleaning agent for clothes. It is related to a variety of cancers such as liver cancer and kidney cancer.

95.1, 3-butadiene: It is a raw material for the manufacture of synthetic rubber, synthetic resin, nylon, etc. It can cause malignant tumors in various tissues and organs such as cardiovascular, lung, stomach, liver, breast and kidney.

96. Lindane (Hexachlorocyclohexane): An agricultural pesticide, commonly known as hexachlorocyclohexane. It is related to breast cancer and rectal cancer.

97.1,2-Dichloropropane: a raw material for the manufacture of pesticides, insecticides, detergents, rubber, and medicines. It is considered to be the culprit of bile duct cancer in the printing industry in Japan.

98. Ethylene oxide: a fungicide in washing, pharmaceutical, printing and dyeing industries, long-term exposure will increase the risk of leukemia and malignant tumors of the hematopoietic system.

99. Bis (chloromethyl) ether and chloromethyl ether (industrial grade): Both are mainly used in the production of anion exchange resins and sulfadiazine drugs. Long-term exposure can cause lung cancer.

100. Sulfur mustard gas: chemical weapons mustard gas, scientific name dichlorodiethyl sulfide, can cause cancer of the skin and immune system.

[Industrial production process and occupational exposure-20 types]

101. Painters, painters, painters, etc. (occupational exposure): Pigments contain cadmium, lead, mercury, chromium and other heavy metals, and paints and organic solvents contain benzene and formaldehyde. Long-term exposure will increase the risk of cancer.

102. Rubber manufacturing industry: In the production process, there are many chemical additives, and it is easy to come into contact with carcinogens such as aniline, which can induce bladder cancer, stomach cancer, lung cancer and leukemia.

103. Steel casting (occupational exposure): If furnace smoke may contain benzopyrene, multiple links may cause a high incidence of cancer.

104. Hematite mining (underground): Exposure to dust during mining may cause lung cancer.

105. Crystalline silica dust in the form of quartz or cristobalite: Workers who have been engaged in mining, quarrying, and crushing operations for a long time are prone to frequent inhalation of silica dust and have a higher risk of cancer.

106. Welding fume: Contains harmful substances such as manganese dioxide, nitrogen oxides, fluoride, ozone, etc., and also contains fine metal particles such as heavy metal cadmium.

107. Wood dust: Contains carcinogens such as wood tar and benzopyrene.

108. Leather powder: It is common in the process of making shoes, which can easily cause nasal cavity cancer.

109. Soot (Occupational exposure of chimney cleaners): There are carcinogens such as benzopyrene in soot.

110. Coal gasification: Industrial processes will produce dust, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and other pollutants, coal tar, benzene, phenol and other carcinogens.

111. Coal tar distillation: In the industrial process, carcinogens such as benzene and benzopyrene are produced.

112. Coal tar pitch: the residue after the distillation extract of coal tar is mainly used for the production of pitch coke, road asphalt, various pitch anticorrosive paints, etc., containing carcinogens such as benzopyrene.

113. Shale oil: The oil contained in shale may cause occupational skin cancer.

114. Coke production: carcinogens such as benzene and benzopyrene are produced in the industrial process.

115. Acheson method related to occupational exposure (using electric arc furnace to make silicon carbide): Carcinogens such as coal tar and benzopyrene are emitted during smelting. Silicon carbide is mainly used to manufacture wear-resistant materials, circuit components, photovoltaic products, etc.

116. Aluminum production: Aluminium oxide, petroleum coke and other dust, fluoride, sulfide, pitch fume, carbon monoxide and other harmful substances may be produced in aluminum production.

117. Auramine production: Auramine is a chemical used as a dye and dye intermediate for dyeing fabrics, paper and leather. The production process is related to the increase of bladder cancer.

118. Magenta production: Magenta is mainly used for dyeing silk, acrylic, wool and other textiles. Workers who produce red dye have an increased risk of bladder cancer.

119. Strong inorganic acid mist: refers to the mist-like acid substances formed by inorganic acids such as sulfuric acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, etc., which are mainly used in the process of acid use in the chemical industry, electronics, metallurgy, electroplating, textile, machinery manufacturing and other industries. They are carcinogenic. risk.

120. Use strong acid to produce isopropanol: Isopropanol is an important chemical raw material, mainly used as a dehydrating agent and cleaning agent in the pharmaceutical, cosmetics, plastics, perfume, paint and electronics industries.


Finally, it needs to be emphasized that it does not mean that these substances will cause cancer when exposed to them, but that these substances are high-risk substances that cause cancer. There is evidence that long-term exposure can increase the risk of cancer. So if possible, try to reduce the chance of exposure to these substances, or contact them at a safe dose.




(source:Health Times, reference only)

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