July 23, 2024

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United States released the15th carcinogen report: 8 materials were added

United States released the15th carcinogen report: 8 materials were added


United States released the15th carcinogen report: 8 materials were added

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services released the latest edition, the 15th edition of the Carcinogens Report, adding eight new carcinogens. 

In the latest report, Helicobacter pylori is listed as a clear carcinogen, while six haloacetic acids (HAAs), used as flame retardants and tap water disinfection, are listed as reasonably suspected human carcinogens. 


United States released the15th carcinogen report: 8 materials were added

United States released the15th carcinogen report: 8 materials were added.


1. Chronic infection of Helicobacter pylori is listed as a clear carcinogen

Chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori is classified as a definite human carcinogen. In recent years, a series of studies have shown that Helicobacter pylori infection will significantly increase the risk of gastric cancer, and people have found a variety of mechanisms by which Helicobacter pylori induces gastric cancer.


2. Antimony trioxide is classified as a reasonably suspected carcinogen

Antimony trioxide is classified as a reasonably suspected carcinogen. Antimony trioxide is an inorganic compound widely used in plastics, textiles and other chemical products as a flame retardant. Workers who manufacture antimony trioxide may be exposed to this substance for a long time at work, and at the same time, it may also be released from poor quality furniture or carpets, and long-term exposure may induce the occurrence of cancer.


3. Six haloacetic acid by-products after tap water disinfection

The remaining 6 kinds of haloacetic acid by-products after tap water disinfection. In the production process of tap water, a large amount of chlorine-based disinfectant is required, which may react with some compounds in the water to form haloacetic acid, which has teratogenic and carcinogenic side effects. There are 6 new haloacetic acids in this report, bromochloroacetic acid (BCA), bromodichloroacetic acid (BDCA), chlorodibromoacetic acid (CDBA), dibromoacetic acid (DBA), dichloroacetic acid (DCA) , Tribromoacetic acid (TBA). 


In recent years, the progress of tap water disinfection technology and filtration technology can significantly reduce the content of haloacetic acid in water. At present, various countries also have standards to limit the content of haloacetic acid in tap water. Therefore, for tap water, we can use it with confidence without worrying about it!


This “carcinogen list” should be closed!


In 2017, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, a subsidiary of the World Health Organization, compiled and published a list of 4 types of carcinogens according to their correlation with cancer, which should be said to be the most complete “carcinogen list” so far.


Among them, category 1 is a confirmed carcinogen to humans; category 2 is limited evidence of carcinogenicity to humans; category 3 is suspected to be carcinogenic to humans; category 4 is a substance that may not be carcinogenic to humans.


There are 120 types of carcinogens in Category 1 (the highest level of carcinogens), including alcoholic beverages, salted fish, air pollution, solar radiation and smoking that are closely related to people’s daily lives. If you can stay away from these 120 “category 1 confirmed carcinogens”, it can help you stay away from cancer . 


[Daily Contacts – 20 Types]

1. Acetaldehyde related to alcoholic beverage intake: Acetaldehyde is an intermediate product of ethanol metabolism in the human body. Acetaldehyde causes DNA damage or double-strand breaks in cells, which can cause cancer.

2. Ethanol in alcoholic beverages: Ethanol can not only metabolize to produce acetaldehyde, but also generate a large number of oxygen free radicals under the action of enzymes, leading to hepatocellular carcinoma.

3. Alcoholic beverages: Carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (such as benzopyrene) may also be produced during the production, fermentation and distillation of wine and alcoholic beverages.

4. Smoking: Cigarettes contain a large amount of carcinogens such as benzopyrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenolic compounds, and formaldehyde.

5. Second-hand tobacco smoke: The cold smoke exhaled by smokers contains twice as much tar and twice as much benzopyrene as the hot smoke inhaled by smokers.

6. Smokeless tobacco: including chewing tobacco and snuff, etc., have higher nicotine and nitrosamine content, and contain carcinogens such as formaldehyde, arsenic, and cadmium.


7. N’-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(N-methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK): two exist in tobacco and nitrogen nitrosamine compounds in smoke, which can induce a variety of cancers.


8. Processed meat (ingestion): Cured meat contains more nitrite and phosphate, and smoked meat contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (benzopyrene).


9. Chinese-style salted fish: The salting process produces a large amount of nitrite, which may be related to nasopharyngeal cancer.


10. Betel nut: The alkaloids contained in betel nut can damage the cell membrane of mucosal cells and damage the DNA of cells.


11. Betel nut chews containing tobacco: The cause of cancer is similar to betel nut, and tobacco increases the toxicity of betel nut.


12. Betel nut chews without tobacco: The cause of cancer is similar to that of betel nut.


13. Outdoor air pollution: It can easily lead to lung cancer and increase the risk of bladder cancer.


14. Outdoor air pollution with particulate matter: Inhalable particulate matter such as PM10 and PM2.5 are also considered to be extremely harmful to human health and increase the risk of cancer.


15. Diesel engine exhaust: There are hundreds of different compounds in the exhaust, which have been confirmed to be associated with lung cancer and bladder cancer.


16. Indoor emissions from domestic coal burning: Carcinogens represented by benzopyrene will be emitted, which can easily induce lung cancer.


17. Benzopyrene: A chemical found in coal tar, which is commonly found in car exhaust, smoke from tobacco and wood burning, and charcoal-grilled foods.


18. Benzene: The basic raw material of petrochemical industry, paint, wallpaper, carpets, printers, automobile exhaust, synthetic fibers, building decoration materials, wood-based furniture and cigarette smoke all contain benzene. The products of benzene metabolism in the human body can lead to the breakage and fragmentation of DNA strands and induce leukemia.


19. Formaldehyde: Ordinary people are mainly exposed to formaldehyde through artificial boards in newly renovated homes. Can lead to nasopharyngeal cancer, neonatal malformations, childhood leukemia, myeloid leukemia and so on.


20. Untreated or lightly treated mineral oil: used in the manufacture of hair cream, hair oil, hair wax, lipstick, face oil, skin care grease, etc. It contains a variety of hydrocarbon substances, and impurities such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals may induce cancer.


[Radiation – 18 types]

21. Solar radiation: Excessive exposure to the sun’s ultraviolet rays can cause skin cancer.


22. Ultraviolet radiation: Damages DNA in skin cells, causing skin cancer.


23. Ultraviolet light-emitting sunbathing equipment: Releases ultraviolet radiation that damages the DNA in skin cells, causing skin cancer.


24. Zanthoxytoxin (8-methoxypsoralen) with ultraviolet A radiation: In foreign countries, xanthotoxin and ultraviolet light therapy are mainly used to treat stubborn skin diseases such as vitiligo and psoriasis, but it may induce cancerous cells.


25. Ionizing radiation (all types): Ionizing radiation is the radiation that can cause ionization of the affected substance, mainly including alpha rays, beta rays, proton currents, neutron currents, X rays, gamma rays, etc. Ionizing radiation can induce various types of DNA molecular damage, resulting in cancer.


26. Radionuclides, alpha particle emission, internal deposition: produced when heavy atoms (such as uranium, radium) or artificial nuclides decay, equivalent to helium nuclei, which can cause tissue damage and cancer.


27. Radionuclides, beta particle radiation, internal deposition: generated when radioactive nuclei decay, equivalent to electrons, which can cause tissue damage and cancer.


28. X-ray and gamma-ray radiation: Produces ionizing radiation that damages cellular DNA.


29. Neutron radiation: Artificial methods release neutrons from the nucleus, which can cause malignant tumors and leukemia.


30. Fission products, including strontium-90: Heavy nuclear fission produces a variety of radionuclides. Fission products are widely used in industry, agriculture and medicine. For example, krypton-85 is used as a beta radiation source and energy source for self-luminous lamps; cesium-137 is a gamma radiation source; strontium-90 is a beta radiation source; technetium-99m is used in nuclear Medically used for clinical diagnosis. Strontium-90 is easy to cause leukemia, and cesium-137 can cause liver and kidney cancer.


31. Radioactive iodine, including iodine-131: commonly used in cancer chemotherapy, but also has a risk of cancer.


32. Radon-222 and its decay products: Natural stone may contain radioactive radon, and building materials are the main source of indoor radon.


33. Radium-224 and its decay products: All isotopes of radium are strongly radioactive, and ionizing radiation can make fluorescent substances glow.


34. Radium-226 and its decay products

35. Radium-228 and its decay products


36. Thorium-232 and its decay products: natural radionuclides, large-scale earth-rock projects such as mining and tunneling, nuclear fuel waste disposal, etc. will appear.


37. Plutonium: a radioactive element, an important raw material for the atomic energy industry, a fission agent for nuclear fuel and nuclear weapons. Plutonium easily accumulates in the liver and bones, causing cancer in human tissues.


38. Phosphorus-32, phosphate form: A radioactive isotope of phosphorus. Phosphate is mainly used for adjuvant treatment of certain malignant tumors, and it is carcinogenic.


[Viruses, bacteria, parasites and toxins – 12 species]

United States released the15th carcinogen report: 8 materials were added.

39. Hepatitis B virus (chronic infection) : Hepatitis B virus can cause DNA rearrangement and loss of DNA fragments, and reduce the ability of liver cells to degrade other carcinogens.


40. Hepatitis C virus (chronic infection): The viral core protein is closely related to liver cancer.


41. Human immunodeficiency virus type I (infection): the AIDS virus, which can synthesize DNA and integrate into the DNA of host cells, causing cancerous transformation of cells, especially when cellular immunity is destroyed and immune surveillance is lost. , cell cancer is more prone to occur.


42. Human papillomavirus: There are more than 130 kinds of DNA viruses, which are divided into high-risk and low-risk types. Different types will cause different clinical manifestations. Among them, high-risk types 16 and 18 are the main types that cause cervical cancer.


43. Human T-lymphotropic virus type I: changes the DNA of the host lymphocytes, making the cells continue to proliferate and divide, and induce leukemia.


44. Epstein-Barr virus: A herpes virus, transmitted through saliva, that mainly causes acute infectious mononucleosis. It is associated with various malignancies such as T-cell lymphoma.


45. Kaposi’s sarcoma herpes virus: A herpes virus that can cause Kaposi’s sarcoma (endothelial cell tumor) and primary exudative lymphoma, among others.


46. ​​Helicobacter pylori (infection) : It is mainly transmitted through mouth-mouth, fecal-oral, and settles in the stomach for a long time, which will gradually destroy the gastrointestinal wall and cause gastric cancer.


47. Clonorchis sinensis (infection): Also known as liver fluke, it is mainly infected by consuming undercooked freshwater fish or shrimp containing the cystic larvae of Clonorchis sinensis. Can cause bile duct epithelial cell proliferation and carcinogenic transformation, mainly adenocarcinoma.


48. Orchid fluke after musk deer (infection): Infected by eating raw fish containing cystic larvae, parasitic in the liver and bile ducts, causing bile duct cancer.


49. Schistosoma aegypti (infection): mainly distributed in Africa, southern Europe and the Middle East, can cause bladder cancer.


50. Aflatoxin: It is a metabolite produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. It is mainly found in moldy peanuts, corn, soybeans, rice, wheat and other grains, nuts and oil products, and is the main cause of diseases such as liver cancer, stomach cancer and bowel cancer.


【Drugs – 22 kinds】

United States released the15th carcinogen report: 8 materials were added.

51. Busulfan: anticancer drug, treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. It may also cause cancer by destroying the structure and function of DNA through alkylation with guanine of cellular DNA.


52. Chlorambucil: an anticancer drug, used for the treatment of Hodgkin’s lymphoma, several non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas and some breast cancers, etc. It can cause cross-linking of DNA chains to affect DNA function, thereby causing cancer.


53. Naphthalene nitrogen mustard: anticancer drug for the treatment of Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Causes the cross-linking of DNA strands to affect DNA function, thereby causing cancer.


54. Cyclophosphamide: an anticancer drug for the treatment of malignant lymphoma, acute or chronic lymphocytic leukemia, multiple myeloma, and also for the treatment of breast cancer, testicular tumors, ovarian cancer, lung cancer, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, Nasopharyngeal carcinoma, etc., interfere with DNA and RNA function.


55. Melphalan: an anticancer drug for the treatment of multiple myeloma and ovarian cancer. Works by disrupting the structure of DNA, thereby causing cancer.


56. Etoposide: anticancer drug, mainly used for the treatment of small cell lung cancer, malignant lymphoma, malignant germ cell tumor, leukemia, etc. Acts on DNase, so that damaged DNA cannot be repaired, thereby causing cancer.


57. Etoposide in combination with cisplatin and bleomycin: a combination chemotherapy regimen, mainly used for ovarian germ cell malignant tumors and laryngeal cancer, etc., may also cause cancer.


58. MOPP and other combination chemotherapy containing alkylating agents: a regimen for the treatment of Hodgkin’s lymphoma, with a risk of carcinogenesis.


59. Semustine: an anticancer drug, mainly used for the treatment of malignant melanoma, malignant lymphoma, brain tumor, lung cancer, etc., with a risk of cancer.


60. Tamoxifen: an anticancer drug, used to treat breast and ovarian cancer, with a risk of cancer.


61. Triamidophos: an anticancer drug, used to treat ovarian cancer, with a risk of cancer.


62. Qu Ao Shufan: anticancer drug, mainly for lung cancer, there is a risk of cancer.


63. Azathioprine: an anti-rejection drug used in organ transplantation, inhibits the synthesis of DNA, RNA and protein, and can induce cancer.


64. Cyclosporine: an anti-rejection drug for liver, kidney and heart transplantation. Increased risk of carcinogenesis due to immunosuppression.


65. Diethylstilbestrol: a synthetic estrogen. Can cause adenocarcinoma of the female reproductive system and through the placenta to the fetus.


66. Postmenopausal estrogen therapy: may increase the incidence of breast cancer and endometrial cancer.


67. Estrogen-progesterone menopause treatment (combination): It may increase the incidence of breast cancer and endometrial cancer.


68. Estrogen-progestin oral contraceptives (combination): can induce liver cancer and increase the risk of breast and cervical cancer.


69. Phenacetine: Fever-relieving and pain-relieving drugs have been banned in many countries. Large doses may induce kidney cancer and bladder cancer.


70. Analgesic mixture containing phenacetin: used to treat fever, headache, toothache, neuralgia, etc., can cause severe kidney damage and liver damage, and induce kidney cancer and bladder cancer.


71. Aristolochic acid: Some studies believe that aristolochic acid mainly induces liver cancer through gene mutation.


72. Plants containing aristolochic acid: Aristolochic acid is widely found in Aristolochiaceae plants. Common medicinal materials containing aristolochia include Aristolochia, Tianxianteng, Qingmuxiang, Bone-seeking wind, Guanmutong, Guang Anti-self, Asarum, etc.


【Industrial products and their pollution – 28 kinds】

United States released the15th carcinogen report: 8 materials were added.

73. Cadmium and cadmium compounds: Cadmium is mainly used in the manufacture of alloys, nickel-cadmium batteries, solders and semiconductor materials.


74. Chromium (hexavalent) compounds: After the wastewater from leather manufacturing and metallurgical chemical industry pollutes water bodies, farmland and aquatic products, it enters the human body. Chromium (hexavalent) compounds have strong oxidizing properties and are harmful to the digestive tract, respiratory tract, skin and mucous membranes.


75. Arsenic and inorganic arsenic compounds: Arsenic mostly exists in rocks as inorganic arsenic compounds in nature. Arsenic trioxide is commonly known as arsenic. Arsenic-containing wastewater and waste discharged from industrial and mineral development, and arsenic-containing pesticides and herbicides used in agriculture are all sources of arsenic. It can cause skin cancer and lung cancer.


76. Nickel compounds: can be used in the manufacture of ceramics, glass, catalysts, magnetic materials, electronic components and batteries. Nickel compounds induce oncogene expression and cancer cell expansion in humans.


77. Beryllium and beryllium compounds: Beryllium and beryllium compounds are mainly used in alloys and the like. After entering the human body, insoluble beryllium oxide is mainly stored in the lungs, which can cause lung cancer.


78. Asbestos: Mainly used in refractory asbestos textiles, water pipes, insulating panels and thermal insulation materials in buildings, electrical appliances, automobiles, and household products. Asbestos itself is not poisonous, but fine asbestos dust adheres to the lungs, causing lung cancer and mesothelioma in the pleura and peritoneum.


79. Fluorine-light amphibole fibrous amphibole: similar to asbestos, easy to deposit in the lungs, induce lung cancer and mesothelioma in the pleura and peritoneum.


80. Erionite: a rare natural mineral with properties similar to asbestos, which can cause mesothelioma in the pleura and peritoneum.


81.2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin: the most toxic monomer of all dioxin types, not produced artificially, without any use, it is the untreated waste after burning garbage and industrial waste. product emitted.


82.2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran: a type of dioxin, which can cause damage to the immune system, nervous system, endocrine system and reproductive function. Long-term excessive intake may cause multiple site of malignant tumors.


83. Dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls with WHO toxicity equivalence factor (TEF): classified under the name “dioxins”, with similar toxicity.


84. Polychlorinated biphenyls: Synthetic organic compounds, industrially used as heat carriers, insulating oils and lubricating oils. It can be absorbed through the skin, respiratory tract, and digestive tract, and is enriched in the human body, causing diseases of the brain, skin and internal organs and affecting the nervous, reproductive and immune systems. The organ that produces cancer is mainly the liver.


85.3,4,5,3′,4′-Pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126): Mainly used as a heat-resistant and flame-resistant plasticizer, which is associated with the occurrence of liver cancer.


86. Pentachlorophenol (polychlorophenol): Mainly used as a herbicide in paddy fields, as a preservative and mildew inhibitor for textiles, leather, paper and wood. Teratogenic and carcinogenic to humans. Dioxin-like compounds are released when burned.


87.4,4′-Methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) (MOCA): Curing agent for synthetic rubbers and epoxy resins, with a carcinogenic risk.


88.4-Aminobiphenyl: It is an intermediate of pesticides and dyes. It is mainly used in organic synthesis, dyes and rubber antioxidants, etc. It can be inhaled, ingested or absorbed through the skin.


89. Benzidine : an intermediate for synthetic dyes, long-term exposure can easily induce bladder cancer.


90. Benzidine produced by dye metabolism: Some dyes may be metabolized to produce benzidine, resulting in structural and functional changes in the DNA of human cells.


91.2-Naphthylamine: used in the manufacture of dyes and organic synthesis, also used as organic analytical reagents and fluorescent indicators. Long-term exposure has the risk of developing bladder cancer.


92. Ortho-Toluidine: Mainly used as intermediates in dyes, pesticides, medicines and organic synthesis, which can induce bladder cancer.


93. Vinyl chloride: used as a comonomer for various polymers, an important raw material in the plastics industry, and also used as a refrigerant, etc., which can induce hepatic angiosarcoma, etc.


94. Trichloroethylene: It has been used as analgesic and metal degreasing agent, and can also be used as extractant, bactericide, refrigerant and clothes dry cleaning agent. It is associated with various cancers including liver and kidney cancer.


95.1,3-Butadiene: It is a raw material for the manufacture of synthetic rubber, synthetic resin, nylon, etc. It can cause malignant tumors of various tissues and organs such as cardiovascular, lung, stomach, liver, breast and kidney.


96. Lindane (Hexachlorocyclohexane): agricultural pesticide, commonly known as 666. associated with breast and rectal cancer.


97.1,2-Dichloropropane: The raw material for the manufacture of pesticides, insecticides, detergents, rubber and pharmaceuticals, and is considered to be the culprit of the frequent occurrence of cholangiocarcinoma in the Japanese printing industry.


98. Ethylene oxide: a bactericide in washing, pharmaceutical, printing and dyeing industries, long-term exposure will increase the risk of leukemia and hematopoietic malignancies.


99. Bis (chloromethyl) ether, chloromethyl ether (industrial grade): The two are mainly used in the production of anion exchange resins and sulfadiazine drugs, etc. Long-term exposure can cause lung cancer.


100. Sulfur mustard gas: chemical weapon mustard gas, scientific name dichlorodiethyl sulfide, can cause skin and immune system cancer.


【Industrial production process and occupational exposure – 20 kinds】

101. Painters, painters, painters, etc. (occupational exposure): Pigments contain heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, mercury, and chromium, and paints and organic solvents contain benzene and formaldehyde. Long-term exposure will increase the risk of cancer.


102. Rubber manufacturing industry: In the production process, there are many chemical additives, which are easy to contact with carcinogens such as aniline, which can induce bladder cancer, gastric cancer, lung cancer and leukemia.


103. Iron and steel casting (occupational exposure): For example, furnace smoke may contain benzopyrene, which may lead to a high incidence of cancer.


104. Hematite mining (underground): Exposure to dust during mining may lead to lung cancer.


105. Crystalline silica dust in the form of quartz or cristobalite: Workers who have been engaged in mining, quarrying, and stone crushing for a long time are prone to frequent inhalation of silica dust and have a higher risk of cancer.


106. Welding fume: Contains manganese dioxide, nitrogen oxides, fluoride, ozone and other harmful substances, as well as fine metal particles such as heavy metal cadmium.


107. Wood dust: Contains carcinogens such as wood tar and benzopyrene.


108. Leather powder: It is common in the process of shoemaking and can easily cause nasal cancer.


109. Soot (occupational exposure of chimney cleaners): Carcinogens such as benzopyrene are present in soot.


110. Coal gasification: Dust, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and other pollutants and coal tar, benzene, phenol and other carcinogens will be produced in the industrial process.


111. Coal tar distillation: Benzene, benzopyrene and other carcinogens will be produced in the industrial process.


112. Coal tar pitch: the residue after the distillation of coal tar to extract fractions, it is mainly used for the production of pitch coke, road construction asphalt, various asphalt anti-corrosion paints, etc. It contains carcinogens such as benzopyrene.


113. Shale oil: Petroleum contained in shale may cause occupational skin cancer.


114. Coke production: Carcinogens such as benzene and benzopyrene will be produced in the industrial process.


115. Acheson method related to occupational exposure (making silicon carbide with electric arc furnace): Carcinogens such as coal tar and benzopyrene are emitted during smelting. Silicon carbide is mainly used in the manufacture of wear-resistant materials, circuit components, photovoltaic products, etc.


116. Aluminum production: Aluminum oxide, petroleum coke and other dust and fluoride, sulfide, asphalt smoke, carbon monoxide and other harmful substances may be produced in aluminum production.


117. Production of auramine: Auramine is a chemical used as dyes and dye intermediates for dyeing fabrics, paper and leather. The production process has been linked to an increase in bladder cancer.


118. Magenta production: Magenta is mainly used in the dyeing of silk, acrylic, wool and other textiles. Workers producing magenta dye had an increased risk of bladder cancer.


119. Strong inorganic acid mist: refers to the mist-like acid substances formed by inorganic acids such as sulfuric acid, nitric acid, and hydrochloric acid. It mainly occurs in the process of acid use in chemical industry, electronics, metallurgy, electroplating, textile, machinery manufacturing and other industries. It is carcinogenic. risk.


120. Using strong acid to produce isopropanol: Isopropanol is an important chemical raw material, mainly used as a dehydrating agent and cleaning agent in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, plastic, perfume, paint and electronic industries.


Finally, it should be emphasized that it does not mean that exposure to these substances will cause cancer, but that these substances are high-risk substances that cause cancer, and there is evidence that long-term exposure will increase the risk of cancer. So if possible, try to minimize your exposure to these substances, or at safe doses.



1. 2021-12-21 United States Department of Health and Human Services, HHS) https://www.niehs.nih.gov/news/newsroom/releases/2021/december21/index.cfm
2. 2017 World Health Organization, List of Carcinogens – List of Class 1 Carcinogens

United States released the15th carcinogen report: 8 materials were added

(source:internet, reference only)


(source:internet, reference only)

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